Filtration Pressure In Kidneys

Your kidneys perform many functions to keep you alive. They
1.filter wastes and extra fluid from your blood
2.keep the proper balance of minerals like sodium, phosphorus, calcium, and potassium in your blood
3.help maintain a healthy blood pressure
4.make hormones that keep your blood and bones healthy

Most people have two kidneys, one on each side of the spinal column in the back just below the rib cage. Each kidney is about the size of a fist and contains about 1 million nephrons. The nephrons are microscopic filtering baskets that transfer wastes from the blood to the collecting tubules of the urinary system.

A person may have only one kidney for one of three main reasons.

A person may be born with only one kidney, a condition known as renal agenesis. Renal dysplasia, another birth defect, makes one kidney unable to function. Many people with renal agenesis or renal dysplasia lead normal, healthy lives and only discover that they have one kidneya”or one working kidneya”when they have an x ray, sonogram, or surgery for some unrelated condition.

Some people must have one kidney removed to treat cancer or other diseases or injuries. The operation to remove a kidney is called a nephrectomy.

A growing number of people are donating a kidney to be transplanted into a family member or friend whose kidneys have failed.

Possible effects of solitary kidney:
If having a single kidney does affect your health, the changes are likely to be so small and happen so slowly that you won’t notice them. Over long periods of time, however, these gradual changes may require specific measures or treatments. Changes that may result from a single kidney include the following:

High blood pressure:
Kidneys help maintain a healthy blood pressure by regulating how much fluid flows through the bloodstream and by making a hormone called renin that works with other hormones to expand or contract blood vessels. Many people who lose or donate a kidney are found to have slightly higher blood pressure after several years.

Proteinuria:
Excessive protein in the urine, a condition known as proteinuria, can be a sign of kidney damage. People are often found to have higher-than-normal levels of protein in their urine after they have lived with one kidney for several years.

Reduced GFR:
The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) shows how efficiently your kidneys are removing wastes from your bloodstream. People have a reduced GFR if they have only one kidney.

You can have high blood pressure, proteinuria, and reduced GFR and still feel fine. As long as these conditions are under control, they will probably not affect your health or longevity. Schedule regular checkups with your doctor to monitor these conditions.

Protecting Kidneys:

Monitoring
Your doctor should monitor your kidney function by checking your blood pressure and testing your urine and blood once a year.

Normal blood pressure is considered to be 120/80 or lower. You have high blood pressure if it is over 140/90. People with kidney disease or one kidney should keep their blood pressure below 130/80. Controlling blood pressure is especially important because high blood pressure can damage kidneys.

Your doctor may use a strip of special paper dipped into a little cup of your urine to test for protein. The color of the dipstick indicates the presence or absence of protein. A more sensitive test for proteinuria involves laboratory measurement and calculation of the protein-to-creatinine ratio. A high protein-to-creatinine ratio in urine (greater than 30 milligrams of albumin per 1 gram of creatinine) shows that kidneys are leaking protein that should be kept in the blood.

Measuring GFR used to require an injection of a contrast medium like iothalamate into the bloodstream followed by a 24-hour urine collection to see how much of the medium is filtered through the kidneys in that time. In recent years, however, scientists have discovered that they can estimate a person’s GFR based on the amount of creatinine in a small blood sample. The new GFR calculation uses the patient’s creatinine measurement along with weight, age, and values assigned for sex and race. Some medical laboratories may calculate GFR at the same time they measure and report creatinine values. If your GFR stays consistently below 60, you are considered to have chronic kidney disease.

Controlling Blood Pressure:

If your blood pressure is above normal, you should work with your doctor to keep it below 130/80. Great care should be taken in selecting blood pressure medicines for people with a solitary kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are two classes of blood pressure medicine that protect kidney function and reduce proteinuria. But these medicines may be harmful to someone with renal artery stenosis (RAS), which is the narrowing of the arteries that enter the kidneys. Diuretics can help control blood pressure by removing excess fluid in the body. Controlling your blood pressure may require a combination of two or more medicines, plus changes in diet and activity level.
Eating Sensibly

Having a single kidney does not mean that you have to follow a special diet. You simply need to make healthy choices, including fruits, vegetables, grains, and low-fat dairy foods. Limit your daily salt (sodium) intake to 2,000 milligrams or less if you already have high blood pressure. Reading nutrition labels on packaged foods to learn how much sodium is in one serving and keeping a sodium diary can help. Limit alcohol and caffeine intake as well.

Avoid high-protein diets. Protein breaks down into the waste materials that the kidneys must remove, so excessive protein puts an extra burden on the kidneys. Eating moderate amounts of protein is still important for proper nutrition. A dietitian can help you find the right amount of protein in your diet.

Avoiding Injury:

Some doctors may advise patients with a solitary kidney to avoid contact sports like boxing, football, and hockey. One study indicated that motor vehicle collisions and bike riding accidents were more likely than sports injuries to seriously damage the kidneys. In recent years, athletes with a single working kidney have participated in sports competition at the highest levels. Having a solitary kidney should not automatically disqualify you from sports participation. Children should be encouraged to engage in some form of physical activity, even if contact sports are ruled out. Protective gear such as padded vests worn under a uniform can make limited contact sports like basketball or soccer safe. Doctors, parents, and patients should consider the risks of any activity and decide whether the benefits outweigh those risks.

Reference: HealthOnclick

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Net filtration pressure in the kidney?
    What is the average net filtration pressure in the kidneys? Is this value the same throughout the glomerulus? Explain your answer so that I can understand plz.

    • ANSWER:
      the net filtration pressure in the glomerulus is 10mmHg for
      for an average, healthy, 20 year old person.

      ———————-
      Explanation:
      This net pressure is the combination of three other pressures acting on the glomerulus:

      1. Glomerular capillary blood pressure – 55 mmHg.
      This is the pressure inside the capillaries of the glomerulus. this hydrostatic pressure is created by the contraction of the heart. In other words, it is kind of like a continuation of our blood pressure (however, we can also vary this pressure according to the bodies needs, by dialating and constricting the afferent and efferent arterioles of the glomerulus.

      2. Bowman’s capsule hydrostatic pressure – 15 mmHg- this is a hydrostatic pressure just like the preceding one, however it is in the opposite direction. the bowmans capsule isn’t a vacuum, so the fluid in the capsule exerts a pressure on its surroundings. this is going to encourage the fluid to move in the opposite direction as the glomerular capillary blood pressure.

      3. Plasma colloid osmotic pressure – 30 mmHg – this is a pressure established by osmosis. In other words, the plasma contains lots of proteins, where as the fluid in the bowmans capsule doesn’t. Therefore, water (fluid) wants to move in the direction of the proteins to dilute the high concentration.

      therefore to obtain the net pressure we subtract the forces opposed to flitration from the forces favoring filtration:

      Net filtration = 55mmHg – (30mmHg + 15mmHg)

      Net filtration = 10 mmHg

      these are typical, average values… however, the body of course isn’t stagnant and will vary these numbers according its moment-to-moment needs

  2. QUESTION:
    how do you think a decrease in blood pressure would affect filtration in the kidneys?
    PLEASE HELP!! I am taking human anatomy and I don’t get it! If you are really good at science, please tell me and keep it to simple answers please haha! Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      There would be a decrease in the kidney’s ability to filter. When your blood pressure gets low, your kidney can release chemicals to bring it back up.

      Good luck

  3. QUESTION:
    One of the forces that is responsible for filtration of the blood in the kidneys’ glomeruli is the?
    One of the forces that is responsible for filtration of the blood in the kidneys’ glomeruli is the
    blood’s hydraulic pressure. Yet the mean blood pressure can rise from its normal value of 90 mm
    Hg to 180 mm Hg without causing an increase in the rate of glomerular filtration. This
    phenomenon, called autoregulation, is brought about by mechanisms that control the
    _________________________________ of the afferent arterioles that carry blood to each glomerulus.

    • ANSWER:
      Diameter – (by dilation or constriction).

  4. QUESTION:
    if blood pressure went down, what changes would the kidney do to maintain normal filtration rate?
    also in renal system physiology, what is the major “ingredient” that needs to be removed from the blood?
    also in aging some nephrons may fail as we get older. will this be a problem regarding urine formation?

    • ANSWER:
      without reviewing the subject, I will say the following:

      the kidneys can secrete renin if the blood pressure falls, the renin indirectly causes an increase in blood pressure and an increase in aldosterone secretion that leads to sodium (and water) retention.

      As you get older the quanity of urine tends to increase, reflecting a decreased ability to concentrate the urine. If kidney later occurs the amout of urine decreases.

      See the Merck Manual now free online:

      http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec17/ch233/ch233c.html?qt=end%20stage%20renal%20disease&alt=sh

  5. QUESTION:
    What would the effect be on kidney filtration if?
    What would the effect be on kidney filtration if?
    What would be the effect on
    filtration of:
    • Drop in blood pressure
    (shock)?
    • Increase in concentration of
    solutes in the blood?
    • Blockage in Bowman’s
    capsule or collecting duct
    (e.g. by kidney stones)?

    • ANSWER:
      great q! i am in renal physio now :)

      ok so if u have a substantial decrease in BP due to shock, your GFR will decrease, even if the kidney tries to maintain adequate pressure by constricting both the afferent and efferent arterioles. Glomerular capillary pressure will not increase too much, but the RBF and GFR will decrease. your body tries to get blood pumped to other spots ie heart and brain…kidney takes less priority esp with shock.

      a rise in plasma concentration of solutes will increase the filtered load causing a decrease in GFR, since it has trouble keeping up with the amt of blood getting filtered since there’s a crapload of solutes in the blood that must be reabsorbed and/or secreted.

      blockage in bowman’s: you will have increased hydraulic pressure that will affect everything upsteam from where the kidney stone is located. upstream the pressure will increase in all of the structures of the nephron that are located PROXIMAL to the obtrusion. as a result of this increased pressure and the body’s concern to increase BP, the GFR will lower.

  6. QUESTION:
    Which is true concerning kidneys?
    A.if the afferent and efferent arteriole have approximately
    the same diameter this would lower Net Filtration Pressure(NFP) to zero or close to zero,
    which is turn would lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
    B.a diuretic like caffeine would increase the volume of urine produced
    C.cortical nephrons have loops of Henle that are located entirely in the renal cortex of the kidney
    D.if nephrons are damaged beyond repair, rennin produced
    by juxtaglomerular cells, can stimulate the
    production of new nephrons from stem cells in the renal cortex
    E.both A and B

    • ANSWER:
      the answer is (c)…………sorry about the xtra stuff……..just wanted to back my answer
      not (d) rennin substitutes for nephrons, (e) by eliminitation is wrong.

      ##caffiene is a diuretic, however the way it is ohrased in your question it is just a general statement.

      Cortical nephrons have their renal corpuscle in the superficial renal cortex, while the renal corpuscles of juxtamedullary nephrons are located near the renal medulla. The nomenclature for cortical nephrons varies, with some sources distinguishing between superficial cortical nephrons and midcortical nephrons. Each nephron is composed of an initial filtering component (the “renal corpuscle”) and a tubule specialized for reabsorption and secretion (the “renal tubule”). The renal corpuscle filters out large solutes from the blood, delivering water and small solutes to the renal tubule for modification.

      Renal corpuscleComposed of a glomerulus and the Bowman’s capsule, the renal corpuscle (or Malpighian corpuscle) is the beginning of the nephron. It is the nephron’s initial filtering component.

      The glomerulus is a capillary tuft that receives its blood supply from an afferent arteriole of the renal circulation. The glomerular blood pressure provides the driving force for water and solutes to be filtered out of the blood and into the space made by Bowman’s capsule. The remainder of the blood (only approximately 1/5 of all plasma passing through the kidney is filtered through the glomerular wall into the Bowman’s capsule) passes into the narrower efferent arteriole. It then moves into the vasa recta, which are collecting capillaries intertwined with the convoluted tubules through the interstitial space, in which the reabsorbed substances will also enter. This then combines with efferent venules from other nephrons into the renal vein, and rejoins the main bloodstream.

      The Bowman’s capsule, also called the glomerular capsule, surrounds the glomerulus. It is composed of a visceral inner layer formed by specialized cells called podocytes, and a parietal outer layer composed of a single layer of flat cells called simple squamous epithelium. Fluids from blood in the glomerulus are filtered through the visceral layer of podocytes, and the resulting glomerular filtrate is further processed along the nephron to form urine.

      Renal tubuleRenal tubule
      The renal tubule is the portion of the nephron containing the tubular fluid filtered through the glomerulus After passing through the renal tubule, the filtrate continues to the collecting duct system, which is not part of the nephron.

      The components of the renal tubule are:

      Proximal convoluted tubule
      Loop of Henle
      Descending limb of loop of Henle
      Ascending limb of loop of Henle
      Thin ascending limb of loop of Henle
      Thick ascending limb of loop of Henle

  7. QUESTION:
    English help plzzzzz!?
    ”It’s the fluid filtered by all nephrons in both kidneys per minute if the filtration pressure is only 1 mmHg.”

    Can I say ”…….if the filtration pressure WERE only 1 mmHg.”
    (u know like ”If I WERE you”)

    or is it totally wrong??

    • ANSWER:
      ‘was’ is better – were normally means more than one

  8. QUESTION:
    In the kidney, w/o regulatory mechanisms, what effect would increase blood pressure+ have on glom. fil. rate?
    Supposed to say: “In the absence of any regulatory mechanisms, what effect would an increase of blood pressure would have on glomerular filtration rate in the kidneys?

    • ANSWER:
      I’d say with an increase in bp substances that normally wouldnt be found in filtrate may be forced through the glomerulus into the bowmans capsule like ehhh….some erythrocytes, possibly some leukocytes, proteins, glucose….things of the like that are not to be found in a normal healthy creatures urine.

  9. QUESTION:
    There can be more than one letter at a certain term. I have already done it, but I honestly just need to check?
    1. Brownian motion, 2. Diffusion,3. Filtration, 4. Hydrostatic pressure, 5. Hypertonic, 6. Hypotonic, 7. Isotonic, 8. Osmosis, 9. Semi Permeable

    a. the tendency of matter to spread to areas of lower concentration
    b. movement through a membrane driven by a hydrostatic pressure gradient
    c. term that specifically describe the diffusion of water across a membrane
    d. term that describes a membrane that allows only some types of particles to pass through it
    e. the natural vibration of particles, it drives diffusion
    f. in the kidney, blood pressure forces some water and solute particles from a blood vessel and into a kidney tubule. What is this type of transport called?
    g. a cell is bathed in solution X. The cell quickly shrivels. What term describes solution X (when compared to the cell’s fluid?
    h. Solution Q has a higher water content than solution Z. Therefore solution Q is __?___ to solution Z.
    i. a saline (salt) solution is to be injected into a patient. The salt/water ratio should be adjusted so that the saline solution is ____?____ to the patient’s cells.
    j. particles of a substance Y move into a cell because there are fewer particles inside the cell than outside. This is an example of ___?___.

    • ANSWER:

  10. QUESTION:
    Please explain Starling Forces as it relates to filtration in the kidney.?
    Does this have to do with oncotic and hydrostatic pressure around the bowman’s capsule? If so, what exactly is the oncotic and hydrostatic pressures?

    • ANSWER:
      Oncotic pressure is the osmotic force exerted by substances in fluid. The oncotic pressure of the plasma is greater in the capillaries than in the interstitial fluid. This is primarily due to plasma proteins that do not leave the plasma.
      This would tend to push fluid from the capsule into the capillaries. But….
      The hydrostatic pressure in the capillary is very high and overcomes the oncotic pressure. This is because the renal artery which has high pressure passes through a short afferent arteriole into the glomerulus in addition to the fact that the efferent arteriole has a smaller diameter than the afferent arteriole.
      So the blood “slams” into the glomerulus with a high hydrostatic pressure driving net fluid movement into bowman’s capsule.
      What results is a process called ultrafiltration.
      This is also due to the fenestrated endothelium in the capillaries here. They are very leaky (gaps between cells).

  11. QUESTION:
    biology questions – excretion?
    1.Which of the following would result in an increase in ADH?
    Choose one answer.
    a. high blood solute concentrations
    b. low blood pressure
    c. low blood solute concetrations
    d. high blood pressure

    2.Which of the following is unable to pass into the glomerous during pressure filtration?
    Choose one answer.
    a. glucose
    b. water
    c. amino acids
    d. plasma proteins

    3.All the following are functions of the kidney except:
    Choose one answer.
    a. regulation of blood pressure
    b. maintenence of bood pH
    c. maintenence of salt/water balance in the blood
    d. regulation of body temperature

    4.Tubular secretion refers to which of the following?
    Choose one answer.
    a. molecules passing from the tube of the nephron into the renal pelvis
    b. molecules passing from the tube of the nephron into the blood
    c. molecules passing from the tube of the nephron into the bladder
    d. molecules passing from the blood into the tube of the nephron

    • ANSWER:
      1-c
      2-d
      3-d
      4-a

  12. QUESTION:
    Execretion and the interaction of systems question?
    20. In the kidney active transport occurs when
    a.small particles are seperated from large particles by the capsule of the nephron
    b.glucose molecules move from the glomerules to bowermans capsule
    c.amino acids are reabsorbed into the blood from the proximal tubule
    d.water moves from a region of lower solute concentration to one of a higher solute concentration through a slectively permeable membrane

    In which case does active transport occur?
    a.transfer of amino acids from the blood to the bowmans capsule
    b.water excretion from the bladder
    c.sodium reabsorption in the kidney tubules
    d. transfer of glucose from the blood to the bowmans capsule

    16. Amino acids move from the glomerulus to the bowmans capsule because of
    a.endoystosis
    b.pressure filtration
    c.passive diffusion
    d.active transport

    • ANSWER:
      d. changes up a gradient require energy

      I think c sodium reabsorbtion – but am not positive.

      16. c small molecules are not filtered

  13. QUESTION:
    can someone answer atleast a couple or 1 or however many you can for me?
    PLEASE.10 points for the most …

    1. the 7 functions of the urinary sytem.
    2.what are the 4 steps of urine formation & which steps are grouped together?

    3.during glomerular filtration, what makes it past the filter and ito the nephron?what doesnt make it past the filter?

    4.what 2 factors assure a high GFR?

    5.what causes a high GCP? What 2 factors fight the GCP? What is the difference between these two pressures?what happens when the GCP gets lower than the sum of the other two factors?

    6. what two things are usually required for a substance to be actively reabsorbed? what exception exists to this general rule?

    7. what is the main substance that is passively reabsorbed? what other major substances is passively reabsorbed?

    8. the reabsorption of t-max of a substance is very high. in general, do you expect to find a lot of that substance in the urine or only a little?

    9. when a substance is secreted by the nephron, does its concentration in the blood increase or decrease?

    10. what part of the urethra is controlled automatically by the parasympathetic division of the ANS for urination? What part of the uretha can be controlled consciously so that we can decide when to urinate

    11. what cells in the kidney sense blood pressure and sodium levels in the blood act to correct any large changes?

    12. what hormone is stimulated by the secretions of the cells from the question above>

    13. what is it called when the blood pH is 7.35? What is it called when blood pH rises above 7.45?

    14. in the bicarbonate buffer, which substance reacts is a base enters the blood? in the phosphate buffer, what substance reacts when a base enters a cell?

    15. what are the 3 regulation processes which control blood pH? List them in terms of their effectiveness, starting with the last effection one.

    16. list the pH control proccesses in terms of their speed in regulation, starting with the slowest.

    • ANSWER:
      Dude that’s wayyy too many questions

  14. QUESTION:
    help with some questions can someone answer as many as they can pleeease?
    PLEASE.10 points for the most …and if your gonna say too many questions or i need to study dont answer.. have a study guide and dont have my textbook & its due tomorrow and i need help. graduating this thursday and i wanna graduate with a’s and b’s. help please?

    1. the 7 functions of the urinary sytem.
    2.what are the 4 steps of urine formation & which steps are grouped together?

    3.during glomerular filtration, what makes it past the filter and ito the nephron?what doesnt make it past the filter?

    4.what 2 factors assure a high GFR?

    5.what causes a high GCP? What 2 factors fight the GCP? What is the difference between these two pressures?what happens when the GCP gets lower than the sum of the other two factors?

    6. what two things are usually required for a substance to be actively reabsorbed? what exception exists to this general rule?

    7. what is the main substance that is passively reabsorbed? what other major substances is passively reabsorbed?

    8. the reabsorption of t-max of a substance is very high. in general, do you expect to find a lot of that substance in the urine or only a little?

    9. when a substance is secreted by the nephron, does its concentration in the blood increase or decrease?

    10. what part of the urethra is controlled automatically by the parasympathetic division of the ANS for urination? What part of the uretha can be controlled consciously so that we can decide when to urinate

    11. what cells in the kidney sense blood pressure and sodium levels in the blood act to correct any large changes?

    12. what hormone is stimulated by the secretions of the cells from the question above>

    13. what is it called when the blood pH is 7.35? What is it called when blood pH rises above 7.45?

    14. in the bicarbonate buffer, which substance reacts is a base enters the blood? in the phosphate buffer, what substance reacts when a base enters a cell?

    15. what are the 3 regulation processes which control blood pH? List them in terms of their effectiveness, starting with the last effection one.

    16. list the pH control proccesses in terms of their speed in regulation, starting with the slowest.

    • ANSWER:
      13. normal ph level is 7.35 – 7.45, if it is above 7.45 it is alkalosis, below 7.35 is acidosis.

      15. least effective is the kidneys (renal) system
      than respiratory compensation
      most effective is the buffer system

  15. QUESTION:
    How do diuretics help with high blood pressure?
    I understand the kidney filters blood, and I understand diuretics increase the amount of water lost in urine/increase the frequency of urination. How does this exactly affect the blood pressure though? I assume it has something to do with the exchange of ions in the nephron. I understand that blood pressure is the amount of pressure being exerted on the arterial walls and BP= cardiac output x total peripheral resistance. I cannot understand how the nephrons can influence that though if that’s how it works at all.

    Also, do diuretics necessarily increase this filtration process as a whole or does it just affect the adsorption/secretion of ions/molecules involved?

    Hope someone can put this together for me to better understand it. Thanks in advance.
    I don’t mind the simple answers, and I do appreciate them. I’d rather have a more detailed answer though if one can provide it.
    To cuddles’ answer…wouldn’t less fluid in the body be a negative affect that wouldn’t be desirable? Maybe throwing off a balance/homeostasis? Also, wouldn’t the presence of more water in the blood actually be a good thing for the blood pressure since it should help the blood to be more viscous (correct me if I’m wrong) and easier to pump

    • ANSWER:
      Thank you for the question.

      Scott, please don’t fret. The answer to your question is not complicated.

      Simply, most diuretics lower blood pressure through two mechanisms: direct vasodilation and by decreasing intravascular blood volume through diuresis. The latter effect is straightforward; the above responders have given good physiologic explanations for this mechanism. However, most lay persons do not understand that vasodilatation may be the dominant effect, depending on the particular diuretic and dosage.

      The prototypical example is hydrocholorothiazide (HCTZ). At a low dosage of 12.5 mg daily, HCTZ exerts its effect predominantly through vasodilation of the smooth muscles of the peripheral arterial circuit. Whereas, at a higher dosage (25 mg daily), HCTZ lowers blood pressure through both vasodilation and diuresis.

      Lasix works similarly, although its diuretic effect is more potent than its vasodilator effect, which in turn, is more prominent in the peripheral venous circuit.

      (As an aside, the peripheral venous dilatation of Lasix explains why it is very effective in treating cardiogenic pulmonary edema via its reduction in preload.)

      Other classes of diuretics, such as spironolactone, triamterene, and amiloride, lower blood pressure predominantly though plain diuresis and reduced intravscular blood volume.

  16. QUESTION:
    CAN YOU EXPLAIN THIS?? the answer is already WRITTEN the HUMAN KIDNEY, EXCRETORY SYSTEM im 15 grade 10 WORK?
    Filtration and Reabsorbtion in the Kidneys

    During progress through the nephron, some solutes like sodium chloride, potassium and glucose are reabsorbed, along with water, back into the bloodstream. This maintains a correct balance of these chemicals within the blood, assisting blood pressure regulation, for example. The filtration and reabsorbtion of glucose within the kidneys also helps to maintain correct levels of vital blood sugars. When this regulation breaks down very serious health consequences can follow.

    Urea and uric acid are nitrogen containing waste products from metabolic processes in the body. These substances are potentially toxic and are partially excreted by the kidneys to maintain good health. Interestingly, of the filtrate which enters each nephron from the blood, only about 1% actually leaves the body as urine because of the various reabsorbtion mechanisms driven by osmosis, diffusion, and active transport.

    CAN YOU EXPLAIN THIS WITH SIMPLER WORDS PLEASE? this isnt for school.. im studying before school starts thanks! im 15 doing IGCSE
    any videos willl help :D BA

    • ANSWER:

      http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/Kudiseases/pubs/yourkidneys/

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=glu0dzK4dbU

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GfmarTDu-S0&feature=related

      http://www.helium.com/items/1057809-human-kidney-structures

  17. QUESTION:
    science questions about the Body and systems?
    1. Which system regulates and controls growth, development, metabolism, and reproduction?
    a. endocrine system
    b. lymphatic system
    c. integumentary system
    d. skeletal system
    The process by which organ systems maintain a relatively stable internal environment is called
    a. circulation.
    b. organization.
    c. homeostasis.
    d. teamwork.
    Which system coordinates the body’s response to changes in its internal and external environment?
    a. lymphatic system
    b. nervous system
    c. excretory system
    d. reproductive system
    What is the function of the central nervous system?
    a. to relay messages
    b. to process information
    c. to analyze information
    d. all of the above
    Which of the following general categories of sensory receptors are located everywhere in the body except the brain?
    a. thermoreceptors
    b. mechanoreceptors
    c. photoreceptors
    d. pain receptors
    Refer to Figure 35-1. The cell body of a neuron collects information from which structure?
    a. A
    b. B
    c. E
    d. C
    What is the smallest structural and functional unit of the nervous system?
    a. nerve
    b. neuron
    c. organ
    d. tissue
    A student’s ability to think about a question and answer it correctly is directly controlled by the
    a. brain stem.
    b. cerebellum.
    c. medulla.
    d. cerebrum.
    What cells maintain the cellular activities of bone?
    a. osteoblasts
    b. osteocytes
    c. osteoclasts
    d. cartilage
    What tough connective tissues join skeletal muscles to bones?
    a. joints
    b. ligaments
    c. periosteum
    d. tendons
    In the walls of the heart, the thick layer of muscle is called the
    a. epithelial tissue layer.
    b. pericardium.
    c. connective tissue layer.
    d. myocardium.
    Which is the correct direction of blood flow?
    a. right atrium → right ventricle → pulmonary artery
    b. right atrium → left atrium → pulmonary artery
    c. left ventricle → pulmonary artery → aorta
    d. left ventricle → left atrium → aorta
    In the heart, the mixing of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood is prevented by the
    a. mitral valve.
    b. tricuspid valve.
    c. septum.
    d. pericardium.
    Compared with the walls of arteries, the walls of veins
    a. are thicker.
    b. are thinner.
    c. lack valves.
    d. have more resistance.
    Which of the following are the smallest of the blood vessels?
    a. arteries
    b. veins
    c. lymphatic cells
    d. capillaries
    The function of valves in the human circulatory system is to
    a. stimulate the heartbeat.
    b. accelerate the flow of blood.
    c. prevent the backward flow of blood.
    d. serve as a cushion to prevent friction.
    When the heart contracts, it produces a wave of fluid pressure in the
    a. veins.
    b. arteries.
    c. capillaries.
    d. pharynx.
    Which organ helps to regulate blood pressure?
    a. spleen
    b. kidney
    c. liver
    d. gall bladder
    When the pressure of blood pumping through the blood vessels is constantly too high, the condition is known as
    a. a heart attack.
    b. hypertension.
    c. atherosclerosis.
    d. a stroke.
    When an infection occurs, the number of
    a. red blood cells increases.
    b. red blood cells decreases.
    c. white blood cells increases.
    d. white blood cells decreases.
    Which blood cells are most numerous in the body?
    a. red
    b. white
    c. platelets
    d. plasma
    Which of the following is NOT a function of blood?
    a. regulate filtration
    b. regulate body temperature
    c. transport nutrients
    d. fight infection
    Which of the following is correct about the composition of plasma?
    a. It is 90 percent water.
    b. It is 50 percent water.
    c. It is 10 percent water.
    d. It contains no water.
    How much blood does the human body contain?
    a. 1–2 liters
    b. 4–6 liters
    c. 8–10 liters
    d. 12–14 liters
    A calorie is the amount of energy needed to
    a. raise the temperature of the body by 1° Celsius.
    b. raise the temperature of 1 g of fat by 1° Celsius.
    c. raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1° Celsius.
    d. none of the above
    Substances that are needed by the body for growth, repair, and maintenance are called
    a. enzymes.
    b. nutrients.
    c. ATP.
    d. Calories.
    Inorganic molecules that perform vital functions in the body are called
    a. lipids.
    b. proteins.
    c. vitamins.
    d. minerals.
    The raw materials that the body needs for growth and repair come from
    a. proteins.
    b. unsaturated fats.
    c. carbohydrates.
    d. water.
    Proteins are made of polymers called
    a. lipids.
    b. unsaturated fats.
    c. amino acids.
    d. vitamins.
    Which of the following structures is made up mostly of water?
    a. blood
    b. lymph
    c. body fluids
    d. all of the above
    Water is lost from the body by each of the following EXCEPT
    a. sweating.
    b. urinating.
    c. respiration.
    d. circulation.
    What can occur if a person does not take in enough water to replace what is lost?
    a. dehydration
    b. circulatory problems
    c. nervous system problems
    d. all of the above
    What “food tube” carries food between the pharynx and the stomach?
    a. small intestine
    b. epiglottis
    c. esophagus
    d. large intestine
    Which of the following would NOT be found in the stomach?
    a. mucus
    b. pepsin
    c. villi
    d. hydrochloric acid
    Which of the following is NOT a function of the pancreas?
    a. produces hormones that regulate blood sugar levels
    b. produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
    c. produces bile
    d. produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid
    Where does the process of chemical digestion begin?
    a. stomach
    b. esophagus
    c. small intestine
    d. mouth
    Water is extracted from digested food in the body primarily by the
    a. bladder.
    b. gallbladder.
    c. large intestine.
    d. pancreas.
    The function of the excretory system is to control homeostasis and
    a. break down nutrients.
    b. remove wastes.
    c. absorb nutrients.
    d. prevent infection.
    The main organs of the excretory system are the
    a. kidneys.
    b. lungs.
    c. intestines.
    d. ureters.
    The endocrine system is made up of
    a. hormones.
    b. glands.
    c. gonads.
    d. prostaglandins.
    Which structure in Figure 39-1 regulates the level of calcium in the blood?
    a. C
    b. D
    c. E
    d. F
    What is the function of the structure labeled H in Figure 39-1?
    a. to produce sex hormones
    b. to produce thyroxine
    c. to produce insulin and glucagon
    d. to produce thymosin
    Which structure in Figure 39-1 releases nine hormones and regulates many of the other endocrine glands?
    a. B
    b. D
    c. H
    d. J
    Which gland produces epinephrine and norepinephrine?
    a. parathyroid
    b. hypothalamus
    c. pituitary
    d. adrenal
    During the menstrual cycle, LH and FSH peak, causing the
    a. corpus luteum to disintegrate.
    b. follicle to release a mature egg.
    c. uterine lining to detach from the uterus.
    d. the lining of the uterus to thicken.
    A zygote is a
    a. two-celled embryo.
    b. solid ball of about 50 cells.
    c. blastocyst.
    d. fertilized egg.
    The germ theory of disease states that infectious diseases are caused by
    a. toxins.
    b. microorganisms.
    c. heredity.
    d. materials in the environment.
    An example of an infectious disease that is caused by a virus is
    a. athlete’s foot.
    b. tuberculosis.
    c. influenza (the flu).
    d. tetanus.
    Antibiotics fight infections by
    a. preventing viruses from replicating.
    b. killing bacteria.
    c. killing infected cells.
    d. growing green mold that inhibits bacterial growth.
    A person who has received a vaccine against polio
    a. is able to produce antibodies against polio.
    b. is more susceptible to the polio virus than someone who has not had the vaccine.
    c. has polio antibodies in the bloodstream.
    d. has antipolio killer T cells in the bloodstream.

    • ANSWER:
      1. Which system regulates and controls growth, development, metabolism, and reproduction?
      a. endocrine system

      2.The process by which organ systems maintain a relatively stable internal environment is called

      c. homeostasis.

      3. Which system coordinates the body’s response to changes in its internal and external environment?

      b. nervous system

      4.What is the function of the central nervous system?

      d. all of the above

      5.Which of the following general categories of sensory receptors are located everywhere in the body except the brain?

      d. pain receptors

      6.Refer to Figure 35-1. The cell body of a neuron collects information from which structure?

      ( dendrites – whichever)

      7.What is the smallest structural and functional unit of the nervous system?

      b. neuron

      8.A student’s ability to think about a question and answer it correctly is directly controlled by the

      d. cerebrum.

      9.What cells maintain the cellular activities of bone?

      b. osteocytes

      10.What tough connective tissues join skeletal muscles to bones?

      d. tendons

      11.In the walls of the heart, the thick layer of muscle is called the

      d. myocardium.

      12.Which is the correct direction of blood flow?
      a. right atrium → right ventricle → pulmonary artery

      13.In the heart, the mixing of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood is prevented by the
      .
      c. septum.
      .
      14.Compared with the walls of arteries, the walls of veins
      a. are thicker.

      15.Which of the following are the smallest of the blood vessels?

      d. capillaries

      16.The function of valves in the human circulatory system is to

      c. prevent the backward flow of blood.
      .
      17.When the heart contracts, it produces a wave of fluid pressure in the

      b. arteries.

      18.Which organ helps to regulate blood pressure?

      c. liver

      19.When the pressure of blood pumping through the blood vessels is constantly too high, the condition is
      b. hypertension.

      20.When an infection occurs, the number of

      c. white blood cells increases.

      21.Which blood cells are most numerous in the body?
      a. red

      22.Which of the following is NOT a function of blood?
      a. regulate filtration

      23.Which of the following is correct about the composition of plasma?
      a. It is 90 percent water.

      24.How much blood does the human body contain?

      b. 4–6 liters

      25.A calorie is the amount of energy needed to
      a. raise the temperature of the body by 1° Celsius.

      26. Substances that are needed by the body for growth, repair, and maintenance are called
      .
      b. nutrients.

      27.Inorganic molecules that perform vital functions in the body are called

      d. minerals.

      28.The raw materials that the body needs for growth and repair come from
      a. proteins.

      29.Proteins are made of polymers called
      a. lipids.

      c. amino acids.

      30.Which of the following structures is made up mostly of water?

      d. all of the above

      31.Water is lost from the body by each of the following EXCEPT

      d. circulation.

      32.What can occur if a person does not take in enough water to replace what is lost?
      a. dehydration

      33.What “food tube” carries food between the pharynx and the stomach?

      c. esophagus

      34.Which of the following would NOT be found in the stomach?

      c. villi

      35.Which of the following is NOT a function of the pancreas?

      c. produces bile

      36.Where does the process of chemical digestion begin?

      d. mouth

      37.Water is extracted from digested food in the body primarily by the

      c. large intestine.
      .

      38.The function of the excretory system is to control homeostasis and

      b. remove wastes.

      39.The main organs of the excretory system are the
      a. kidneys.

      40.The endocrine system is made up of

      b. glands.

      41.Which structure in Figure 39-1 regulates the level of calcium in the blood?

      (Parathyroid- whichever)

      42.What is the function of the structure labeled H in Figure 39-1?

      (sorry I cant see the diagram)

      43.Which structure in Figure 39-1 releases nine hormones and regulates many of the other endocrine glands?

      (Pituitary- whichever)

      44.Which gland produces epinephrine and norepinephrine?

      d. adrenal

      45.During the menstrual cycle, LH and FSH peak, causing the

      b. follicle to release a mature egg.

      46.A zygote is a

      d. fertilized egg.

      47.The germ theory of disease states that infectious diseases are caused by
      .
      b. microorganisms.

      48.An example of an infectious disease that is caused by a virus is

      c. influenza (the flu).

      49.Antibiotics fight infections by

      a. preventing viruses from replicating.

      50.A person who has received a vaccine against polio

      c. has polio antibodies in the bloodstream.

  18. QUESTION:
    some homework help??????????
    The lowest blood concentration of nitrogenous waste occurs in the
    a. hepatic vein
    b. inferior vena cave
    c. renal artery
    d. renal vein
    The glomerular cappillaries differ from other capillary networks in the body because they
    a. have a larger area of anastomosis
    b. are derived from and drain into arterioles
    c. are not made of endothelium
    d. are sites of filtrate formation
    Damage to the renal medulla would interfere first with the functioning of the
    a. glomerular capsule
    b. distal convulated tubules
    c. collecting ducts
    d. proximal convulated tubules
    A

    Which is reabsorbed by the proximal convulted tubules?
    a. Na
    b. K
    c. amino acids
    d. proximal convulated tubules
    Glucose is not normally found in the urine because it
    a. does not pass through the walls of the glomerulus
    b. is kept in the blood by colloid osmotic pressure
    c.is reabsorbed by the tubule cells
    d. is removed by the body cells before the blood reaches the kidney
    Filtration at the glomerulus is inversely related to
    a. water reabsorption
    b. capsular hydrostatic pressure
    c. arterial blood pressure
    d. acidity of the urine
    Tubular reabsorption
    a. of glucose and many other substances is a T-limited active transport process
    b. of chloride is always linked to the passive transport of Na
    c. is the movement of substances from the blood into the nephron
    d. of sodium occurs only in teh proximal tubule
    If a freshly voided urine sample contains excessive amounts of urochrome it has
    a. an ammonia-like odor
    b. a pH below normal
    c. a dark yellow color
    d. a pH above normal
    Conditions such as diabetes mellitus, starvation, and low-carboyhydrate diets are closely linked to
    a. ketonuria
    b.pyuria
    c. albuminuria
    d. hematuria
    Which of the following is/are true about ADH?
    a. it promotes obligatory water reabsorption
    b. it is secreted in response to an increase in extracellular fluid osmolatlity
    c. it causes insertion of aquaporins in the PCT
    d. it promotes Na reabsorption

    • ANSWER:
      You’re kidding, right?

      Anatomy of the Human Heart with Flash Illustration

      http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/heart/

      http://www.heartpoint.com/theheart.html

      http://www.infovisual.info/03/062_en.html

      http://sln2.fi.edu/biosci/preview/heartsee.html

      http://texasheart.org/HIC/Anatomy/Anatomy.cfm

      http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/6100/1heart.html

      http://education.yahoo.com/reference/gray/illustrations/figure?id=505

      STRUCTURE OF THE HEART.

      http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/6100/1HrtPics.html

      http://www.cayuga-cc.edu/people/facultypages/greer/biol204/heart1/heart1.html

  19. QUESTION:
    Few biology question, please help thanks?
    18. Which mechanism used to form urine requires a high blood pressure?
    A. glomerular filtration
    B. tubular reabsorption
    C. tubular secretion
    D. phagocytosis
    E. countercurrent mechanism

    19. The loop of the nephron:
    A. serves no useful purpose
    B. contains the glomerulus
    C. is important for water reabsorption
    D. is important for excreting large foreign molecules such as penicillin

    20. Which of the following events are in the correct chronological order?
    A. angiotensinogen  angiotensin, renin is released, aldosterone is released, distal convoluted tubule is stimulated to reabsorb sodium ions
    B. renin is released, angiotensinogen  angiotensin, aldosterone is released, distal convoluted tubule is stimulated to reabsorb sodium ions
    C. aldosterone is released, renin is released, angiotensinogen  angiotensin
    D. distal convoluted tubule is stimulated to reabsorb sodium ions, aldosterone is released, renin is released, angiotensinogen  angiotensin

    21. A urinary tract infection (UTI) in the bladder is referred to as:
    A. cystitis
    B. urethritis
    C. pyelonephritis
    D. prostatitis

    22. Macroscopically, a kidney is composed of the:
    A. renal cortex
    B. renal medulla
    C. renal pelvis
    D. renal cortex and medulla
    E. renal cortex, medulla, and pelvis

    23. Hypertonic urine:
    A. is less concentrated than blood
    B. is more concentrated than blood
    C. is the same concentration as blood

    • ANSWER:
      18. A
      19. C
      20. B
      21. idk
      22. D
      23. B.

  20. QUESTION:
    Puting the Puzzle together Blood test results?
    28 year old white female , Smoker half pack a day , 180lbs living on the texas mexico border
    vision desturbunses,musel and joint pain, dermititus, ibs , fatige

    History of cycst and tumors Family History : Diabetes,Heart problems , High blood pressure

    In 2009 paitent starts to see white flakes in urion and complaning of flank pain and over all discomfort .Noted rise in protein. 2009 noted that a rash covered areas of her skin. said it would itch when she got hot. Later found to be dermitites. Treated with steriod shots and cream.
    2011 patent complains of same thing on going vision desturbunses,musel and joint pain, dermititus, ibs , fatige . Took urion sample found +5 protein and small amout of blood . Reffered to kidney specialest a 24 hr collection was done showed normal kidney filtration. So you see the puzzel is you have white flakes in urion and elevated protien. Whats the problem ? Do you have a theory ?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi,
      I am David working in a specilized kidney disease hospital. Our kidneys have very good compensatory ability, that is to say, some indicators in clinical test, like GFR, does not present abnormal in early stage, though our kidneys have been already damaged to some extent. Some symptoms like proteinuria and blood urine constantly, can provide some implication of damaged renal function.

      Anyway, smoking can shrink our blood vessels and arouse hypertension readily, so you should try to quit smoking as soon as possible.

      You can send me your test report, and I make an analysis about your kidney. My email address: ri-men@hotmail.com

      Regards,
      David Wong

  21. QUESTION:
    Autoregulation is brought about mechanisms that control the __ of the afferent arterioles that carry blood…?
    One of the forces that is responsible for filtration of the blood in the kidneys’ glomeruli is the blood’s hydraulic pressure. Yet the mean blood pressure can rise from its normal value of 90 mm Hg to 180 mm Hg without causing an increase in the rate of glomerular filtration. This phenomenon, called autoregulation, is brought about by mechanisms that control the ________________________________ of the afferent arterioles that carry blood to each glomerulus.

    Any ideas? Any help is kindly appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      Tone

  22. QUESTION:
    Anatomy help! Urinary System!?
    I need help answering a few questions on an anatomy study guide! please help!
    1. relationship between tubular secretions and reabsorbtion
    2. rule concerning water and salt
    3. five main characteristics of urine
    4. Which ions do your kidneys excrete to maintain acid base balance?
    5. Relationship b/w incontinence & elderly
    6. Which body system controls your voluntary urethral sphincters?
    7. 4 things reabsorbed by your convoluted tubes
    8. five things found in urine
    9. name of the procedure that crushes kidney stones
    10. 4 symptoms of UTI
    11. Which part of the kidney are the nephrons in?
    12. How many nephrons are in kidneys?
    13. parts of nephrons in order
    14. what type of pressure is needed to filter blood?
    15. filtration?

    • ANSWER:
      That goes well beyond a “few” questions into 15 questions, and probably is the entirely of the chapter guide. Might I suggest that you read the assigned reading? Me answering your question isn’t going to help you in learning the subject after all.

      I will help you in part of it though, and tell you there are about a million nephrons per kidney, and that they are found in the cortex of the kidney. Nephron by the way is Greek for kidney.

      Parts, in order, are:

      renal artery, renal vein, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, bowman’s capsule, proximal tubules, distal tubules, loop of henle, renal pelvis, cortex, medulla, peritubular capillaries, ureter

      If you perhaps have misplaced your book, start here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=chhNaLi9P3E

  23. QUESTION:
    Biology (Anatomy) Questions please help?
    1. Glomerular filtration is opposed by the
    a. hydraulic pressure of the blood in the glomerular capillaries
    b. osmotic pressure inside glomerular capillaries
    c. fluid pressure in the Bowman’s capsule
    d. A amd B
    e. B and C

    2. whiich statement is NOT TRUE
    a. The blood supply to the kidneys comes through the renal arteries
    b. As much as one fourth of the cardiac output may flow to the kidneys at any given movement
    c. The kidneys lie in abdominal cavity surrounded by peritoneal membranes and are protected by other visceral organs.
    d. The urinary bladder is filled by two ducts, called ureters and emptied by the single urethra.
    e. Women are more likely to develop urinary tract infections than men are.

    3. The same basic pattern hold for molecules absorbed by Na+ dependent transport: and apical __________ and a basolateral _____________
    a. facilitated diffusion carrier/ osmotic gradient
    b. symport protein/ facilitated diffusion carrier
    c. symport protein/ osmotic gradient
    d. osmotic gradient/symport protien
    e. facilitated diffusion carrier/symport protein

    4.Which of the following is NOT correct
    a. peritubular capillaries surrounded glomerulus
    b. respiratory alkalosis is due to hyperventilation
    c. renal clearance for glucose = 0
    d one would look for teniae coli in the large intestine
    e. lipoprotein lipase hydolyses lipids in chylomicrons

    5.The following are the main steps in generation of an action potential.
    put them into the proper sequence
    1. sodium channels are inactivates
    2. voltage-regulated potassium channels open and potassium moves out of the cell initiating repolarization
    3. sodium channels regain their normal properties
    4. a graded depolarization brings and area of an excitable membrane to the threshold
    5. a temporary hyperpolarization occurs
    6. sodium channel activation occurs
    7. sodium ions enter the cell and depolarization occurs

    a. 4,6,7,3,2,5,1
    b. 4,6,7,1,2,5,3
    c. 6,7,4,1,2,3,5
    d. 2,4,6,7,1, 3,5
    e. 4,2,5,6,7,3,1

    6.In order to decrease the concetration of HCO3- (generated according to the reaction shown below) one should
    H2O + CO2 = H2CO3 = H+ + HCO3-
    a. increase the concentration of CO2
    b. reduce the concetratration of H+
    c. reduce the concentration of CO2
    d. increase the concentration of H+
    e. a and/or b

    7.Which of the following is NOT TRUE of Neural reflexes?
    a. they are automatic motor responses
    b. they are triggered by specific stimuli
    c. they provide the ability to make rapid responses to changing stimuli to preserve homeostasis
    d. the responses are greatly variable in response to the same stimuli
    e. no exceptions all of the above are true

    8.which of the following is true about reflex arc?
    a. it begins at a receptor and ends at a peripheral effector
    b. it is a voluntary response to a specific stimulus
    c. it always includes information processing in one or more brain centers
    d. it may not result in a response, even when triggered by the appropriate stimulus at higher than threshold level
    f. none of the above

    please help!

    • ANSWER:
      The leg bone is connected to the knee bone.

      That’s the song I use to work me through these types of problems. Sometimes I read my text book too.

  24. QUESTION:
    Pretend you are cleaning your garage but the big door is stuck. You can only move things through the smaller “?
    Pretend you are cleaning your garage but the big door is stuck. You can only move things through the smaller “people” door. So the cars and riding lawn mower have to stay in the garage. This is analogous to the pores in the glomerulus. They are larger than ordinary capillary pores but still not large enough to let everything out. So, large things like proteins stay in the blood. You have decided to haul almost everything out that you can fit through the smaller door. Out goes the hoses, garden implements, lawn chemicals, recycling etc., without any sorting. You do this till you run out of energy. (Filtration – what fits goes through filters and it is controlled by size and the pressures.) After a short rest, you realize that you need some of this stuff. So you exert some more energy (active transport!) and put some of the materials back into the garage. For example, 13 of the 27 hoses are still good so they go back (like tubular reabsorption!!) The others are put out for the trash pickup (analogous to going to the bladder). After sorting, returning and discarding, you take one last look at what is now in the garage. Do you really need 13 hoses? Isn’t that one a little holey? So you take it back out of the garage and put it in the trash pile with the others. (just like tubular secretion, a last chance to excrete something we don’t need.) And now your garage, (and your blood) is clean!

    Post an analogy similar to the garage analogy in the provided discussion thread. It does not need to be as comprehensive as the example above but should provide a way of understanding the basic functions of the kidneys’ filtration role.

    • ANSWER:
      WHAT???????

  25. QUESTION:
    biology– nephrons?!?
    fill in the blank:

    a cup shaped sac called a bowmans capsule surrounds each………

    the blood that flows through the……………is under great pressure.

    ………..and………remain in the blood.

    almost all the…..is removed during filtration that returns to the blood during reabsorption phase.

    wastes in the nephron are called………and include………., …………, and inorganic…..

    the cleansed blood goes into………that carry the blood from the kidneys and back to the heart.

    thank u!

    • ANSWER:
      Glomerulus

      Glomerulus/capillary beds/afferent arteriole/renal artery/etc.

      Blood cells and plasma proteins, basically large things

      Nutrients/water

      Urine, urea, water, phosphates

      Renal vein

  26. QUESTION:
    Biology help with HW please dont understand?
    The amount of fluid retained in the body is regulated by both
    a)aldosterone and insulin.
    b) erythropoietin and secretin.
    c) aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone.
    d) antidiuretic hormone andd gastrin.

    It was observed that an experimental subject consistently passed a larger volume of urine after consuming three cups of black unsweetened tea containing caffeine than after consuming an equal volume of sweetened lemonade. Assume all other variables were carefully controlled.

    Which hypothesis is based on an appropriate body response to the active ingredient identified in the beverage ?

    a) The caffeine in the tea caused a reduction in the secretion of ADH by the pituitary gland.
    b) The sugar in the lemonade provided additional energy for the active transport of water out of the nephrons.
    c) The caffeine in the tea caused the liver to produce more urea.
    d) The sugar in the lemonade blocked the reabsorption of water by the distal tubules of the kidney.

    After an individual drinks large quantities of water, the blood becomes slightly diluted. The body immediately reacts by
    a) increasing the secretion of ADH.
    b) reabsorbing more sodium ions from the filtrate of the nephron into the blood.
    c) increasing the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal glands.
    d) decreasing the secretion of ADH.

    In an artificial kidney, blood is pumped through dialysis tubing (semipermeable tubing) which is immersed in a tank of washing or dialyzing solution. The blood is cleansed because
    a) urea and other impurities diffuse into the wash solution.
    b) chemical cleansers diffuse into the blood from the wash solution.
    c) water from the wash solution enters the blood by osmosis.
    d) poisons from the blood are actively transported out of the tubing.

    Dialysis machines purify blood by passing it through semi-permeable cellophane tubing immersed in a tank of dialysing fluid. Wastes are transferred through the tubing into the fluid. A system of this type can perform all the functions of a normal kidney except the
    a) diffusion of salts into the blood.
    b) active transport of substances out of the blood.
    c) filtration of smaller particles into the nephron.
    d) osmosis of water into the collecting duct.

    An activity that increases as a result of untreated diabetes mellitus is

    a)storage of energy for tissue activities.
    b) use of sugar by tissue cells.
    c) release of insulin from the pancreas.
    d) excretion of glucose by the kidneys.

    Arteriolar dilation throughout the body would cause urine production to decrease because the
    a)osmotic pressure of the blood plasma would decrease.
    b) osmotic pressure of the blood plasma would increase.
    c) blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries would increase.
    d) blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries would decrease
    please help i dont understand

    • ANSWER:
      1)The amount of fluid retained in the body is regulated by both:
      c) aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone

      2) Which hypothesis is based on an appropriate body response to the active ingredient identified in the beverage ?
      a) The caffeine in the tea caused a reduction in the secretion of ADH by the pituitary gland.

      3)After an individual drinks large quantities of water, the blood becomes slightly diluted. The body immediately reacts by
      d) decreasing the secretion of ADH.

      4)In an artificial kidney, blood is pumped through dialysis tubing (semipermeable tubing) which is immersed in a tank of washing or dialyzing solution. The blood is cleansed because
      a) urea and other impurities diffuse into the wash solution.

      5)Dialysis machines purify blood by passing it through semi-permeable cellophane tubing immersed in a tank of dialysing fluid. Wastes are transferred through the tubing into the fluid. A system of this type can perform all the functions of a normal kidney except the
      b) active transport of substances out of the blood

      6)An activity that increases as a result of untreated diabetes mellitus is
      d) excretion of glucose by the kidneys

      7)Arteriolar dilation throughout the body would cause urine production to decrease because the
      d) blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries would decrease

      I hope this helps. Good luck.

  27. QUESTION:
    i need help with the urinary system!!?
    THERE MAY BE ONE, MORE THAN ONE, OR NO CORRECT ANSWERS!! (confused me)

    Thanks just take a look through, if you can help me on any of these, anything would help!!!

    1) Constriction of which of the following increases blood pressure within the glomeruli?

    a. interlobular arteries
    b. vasa recta
    c. efferent arterioles
    d. afferent arterioles

    2) Regulation of sodium/potassium content of the glomerular filtrate occurs in the

    a. glomerular capsule
    b. proximal convulated tubule
    c.distal convulated tubule
    d. collecting duct

    3) Which of the following forms of membrane transport are used to transport amino acids

    a. osmosis
    b. faciliated diffusion
    c. active transport
    d. secondary active transport

    4) When glucose is present in the filtrate, the urine volume will be

    a. greater than normal
    b. less than normal

    5) The change in urine volume seen in the previous question is due to which of the following?

    a. filtration
    b. secretion
    c. reabsorption
    d. osmosis

    6) Most sodium transport occurs across the membranes of the

    a. proximal convoluted tubule
    b. nephron loop
    c. distal convoluted tubule
    d. collecting duct

    7) Which of the following structures is considered to be a counter-current multiplier?

    a. vasa recta
    b. peritubular capillaries
    c. ascending/descending segments of the vasa recta
    d. collecting ducts

    8) Which of the following functions to increase glomerular filtration rate?

    a. dilation of afferent arterioles
    b. secretion of anit-diuretic hormone
    c. secretion of aldosterone
    d. secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide

    9) Which of the following channels are used to reabsorb sodium ions into the blood?

    a. hormone regulated (ligand- gated) channel
    b. symport channels
    c. antiport channels
    d. active transport pumps

    10) After secretion of the products of drug detoxification from peritubular blood into the glomerular filtrate, the filtrate would contain

    a. less drug products then present in the afferent arteriole blood prior to filtration
    b. more drug products then present in the peritubular blood
    c. more drug products then in the glomerular filtrate in the Bowman’s capsule
    d. the same amount of drug products in the filtrate as in the peritubular blood

    11) The portal system of the kidneys is identified as a(n)

    a. arterial portal system
    b. venous portal system

    12) Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is synthesized by cells of the

    a. afferent arteriole
    b. efferent arteriole
    c. distal tubule
    d. lungs

    13) Which of the following cells demonstrate the enzyme carbonic anhydrase

    a. erythrocytes
    b. simple squamous cells lining capillaries
    c. simple cubodial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules
    d. simple cubodial cells of the distal convoluted tubules

    14) Which of the following substances would be secreted into the glommerular filtrate

    a. ammonia
    b. creatinine
    c. hydrogen ions
    d. potassium ions

    15) Hydrogen ions are capable of diffusing across which of the following:

    a. basolateral membrane of the simple cuboidal epitheliun (proximal convoluted)
    b. apical membrane of the simple cuboidal epitheliun (proximal convoluted tubule)
    c. simple squamous cell of the peritubular capillary
    d. simple squamous cell of the parietal layer of renal capsule

    16) Which of the following demonstrates the presence of water channels (aquaporin)

    a. proximal convoluted tubule
    b. descending limb of nephron loop
    c. ascending limb of nephron loop
    d. collecting ducts

    17) The process of hydrogen ion secretion occurs via which of the following mechanisms

    a. hydrogen ions duffuse out of the glomerular filtrate of the PCT, through extracellular fluid and into peritubular blood
    b. hydrogen ions diffuse out of the peritubular blood, through extracellular fluid and into the fluid of the PCT
    c. carbon dioxide diffuses into the PCT cell from peritubular blood; undergoes a chemical reaction to form carbonic acid; dissociates into hydrogen and bicarbonate ios and the hydrogen ion diffuses into the glomerular filtrate of the PCT
    d. carbon dioxide diffuses into the PCT cell from peritubular blood; undergoes a chemical reaction to form carbonic acid; dissociates into hydrogen and bicarbonate ios and the hydrogen ion diffuses into the peritubular blood

    18) Which of the following increases water reabsorption and results in the production of urine with higher osmolality than that produced without it

    a. aldosterone
    b. anti-diuretic hormone
    c. atrial natrurietic hormone
    d. angiotenin II

    19) Which of the following are the major buffer(s) within glomerular filtrate

    a. phosphate
    b. protein
    c. hemoglobin
    d. ammonia (ammonium ion)

    20) Which of the following would result in metabolic acidosis

    a. diabetes mellitus
    b. diarrhea
    c. extensive gastric vomiting
    d. pneumonia

    21) BIcarbonate ions are capable of diffusion across which of the following components:

    a. basolateral membrane of the simple cuboidal spitheli

    • ANSWER:
      1. C and B
      2. C
      3. B
      4. A
      5. D
      6. A
      7. None (The answer is ascending and descending limbs of the loop of Henle. The vasa recta is really only a countercurrent exchange, not multiplier.)
      8. A and D
      9. B and D
      10. B and C
      11. Humans don’t have a renal portal system.
      12. D
      13.A and either C or D, or both
      14. I’m pretty sure this is A, B, C, and D, although I don’t know about ammonia. I’m fairly certain that ammonia would be regulated in much the same fashion as urea, however.
      15. A, B, C, and D (I think = )
      16. A, B, and D
      17.
      18. B (and D stimulates B secretion, so I guess D, too)
      19.
      20. B
      21. A

  28. QUESTION:
    Chronic Kidney Disease?
    Hey guys! I’m 31, slightly overweight but active, with chronic high blood pressure that I have been taking medication for several years. In my annual blood test, it shows that glomerular filtration rate is weakening and the creatinine rate is increasing. The doctor is saying that I am developing chronic kidney disease.
    Has anyone else been diagnosed with this so young? If so, what lifestyle changes have you had to do to help combat it?

    Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      Chronic Kidney Disease, CKD, is an all too common phenomenon amongst the US population and its two most common causes are Essential Hypertension and Diabetes. Hypertension that is not well controlled, i.e., keeping the blood pressure at or less than 140/80, has been shown in multiple studies to be a strong predictor of hypertension related comorbities such as CKD.

      The actual serum creatinine should be interpreted in light of your age, body build, physical activity and very importantly your total body muscle mass. Creatinine actually results from the turnover or metabolism of muscle protein. Many things affect its level in the serum.

      Parameters necessary to completely answer your question and further discuss it are:

      1. What was your baseline serum creatinine at diagnosis of your hypertension?
      2. At the time of diagnosis, did you have any proteinuria?
      3. Is the GFR (glomerular filtration rate) you mention a measured value or one calculated from your age, weight and serum creatinine?
      4. What are the GFR and total protein excretion in a 24 hour urine collection? These are fairly accurate measurements of renal function.
      5. What is your serum HC03; i.e., do you have any degree of metabolic acidosis?
      6. If you are overweight, how far above your ideal body weight are you, exactly? Obesity plays a negative role in the treatment and outcome of hypertension.
      7. Is your blood pressure well controlled?
      8. Have you been assessed for Renal Artery Stenosis (RAS)? In your age group if you have significant HTN that is somewhat or very difficult to control Secondary causes of hypertension must be sought. These include RAS, endocrine disease, pheochromocytoma, etc.

      I would strongly recommend you have a nephrologist evaluate you. Not only does a nephrologist specialize in renal disorders, of which there are several primary glomerulopathies which may afflict you, they are also experts in the evaluation and treatment of hypertension.

      Don’t wait for further evaluation and treatment. Hypertension does its damage over time and the longer you wait the more damage will occur, not just to your kidneys but other organs as well, especially the cardiovascular system.

      I hope this is helpful to you.

      DrEarp

  29. QUESTION:
    The ascending limb of the loop of Henle…?
    1. The ascending limb of the loop of Henle
    A)is permeable to water.
    B)is permeable to salt which leaves as the filtrate becomes more dilute.
    C)draws in salt from the medulla to make the filtrate more concentrated.
    D)reacts to ADH levels.
    E)is the primary site of tubular secretion.

    2.Which hormone(s) produced by the kidney is important in the regulation of blood pressure?
    A)angiotensin
    B)ADH
    C)renin
    D)A and B
    E)A, B and C

    3.The hollow inner chamber of the kidney is called the
    A)medulla.
    B)pelvis.
    C)cortex.
    D)smooth muscle.
    E)glomerulus.

    4.The process by which water and nutrients are passed from the filtrate back into the blood is known as
    A)tubular secretion.
    B)tubular reabsorption.
    C)filtration.
    D)tubular elimination.
    E)tubular excretion.

    5.The concentration of the urine is controlled by
    A)aldosterone.
    B)antidiuretic hormone.
    C)diuretic hormone.
    D)renal diluting hormone.
    E)homeostatic hormone.

    6.Which part(s) of the tubule system in the kidney is sensitive to the effects of ADH?
    A)collecting duct
    B)distal tubule
    C)proximal tubule
    D)loop of Henle
    E)both A and B

    • ANSWER:
      1. B – descending limb is permeable to water, ascending to salt
      2. B- antidiretic hormone controls water reabsorption, blood volume and therefore blood pressure..
      3. A- medulla (which consequently means “inside”)
      4. B- not 100% on that though, but its called reabsorption for sure
      5. B- thats why when you take a diuretic such as alcohol you pee a lot…it inhibits the release of ADH which controls water reabsorption. If you don’t reabsorp water, urine becomes less concentrated (CD and E arent even hormones)
      6. B

  30. QUESTION:
    In a normal kidney, which of the following conditions?
    In a normal kidney, which of the following conditions would cause an increase in the glomerular filtration rate

    (a) constriction of the afferent arteriole
    (b) a decrease in the pressure of the glomerulus
    (c) an increase in capsular
    (d) a decrease in the concentration of plasma proteins in the blood
    (e) a decrease in the net filtration process
    In a normal kidney, which of the following conditions would cause an increase in the glomerular filtration rate

    (a) constriction of the afferent arteriole
    (b) a decrease in the pressure of the glomerulus
    (c) an increase in capsular hydrostatic pressure
    (d) a decrease in the concentration of plasma proteins in the blood
    (e) a decrease in the net filtration process
    Adjustment to (c)

    (c) an increase in capsular hydrostatic pressure

    • ANSWER:
      Did you leave out something for choice ‘C’?

      Addition: I have to go with ‘C’ – glomerular hydrostatic pressure is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane

  31. QUESTION:
    Some anatomy and physiology help please….?
    This is all just circle the term that doesn’t fit questions. We basically had a packet of about 100 to circle and we got stuck on the urinary system, so if you guys can help us out with any of these that’d be great:

    1. Intraperitoneal, Kidney, Retroperitoneal, Superior lumbar region
    2. Drains Kidney, Ureter, Urethra, Renal pelvis
    3. Peritubular capillaries, Reabsorption, Glomerulus, Low-pressure Vessels
    4. Juxtaglomerular Apparatus, Distal tubule, Glomerulus, Afferent Arteriole
    5. Glomerulus, Peritubular capillaries, Blood vessels, Collecting duct
    6. Cortical nephrons, Juxtamedullary nephrons, Cortex/medulla junction, Long loops of Henle
    7. Nephron, Proximal convoluted tuble, Distal convoluted tubule, Collecting duct
    8. Medullary Pyramids, Glomeruli, Renal pyramids, collecting ducts
    9. Hypothalamus, ADH, Aldosterone, Osmoreceptors
    10. Glomerulus, Secretion, Filtration, up BP
    11. Aldosterone, up NA+ areabsorption, up K+ reabsorption, up BP
    12. ADH, Down BP, up Blood Volume, up water reabsorption
    13. down Aldosterone, Edema, down blood volume, down K+ retention
    14. Down Urine PH, up H+ in urine, up HCO3- in urine, up Ketones
    15. Bladder, Kidney, Transitional epithelium, Detruser muscle
    16. Trigone, Ureter openings, Urethral openings, Bladder, Forms urine
    17. Surrounded by prostate gland, contains internal and external spincters, continuous with renal pelvis, Urethra

    So….yeah. That’s about it! Like I said any help would be greatly appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      1) intraperitoneal, kidneys are retroperitoneal
      2) urethra
      3) glomerulus? filters, does not reabsorb
      4) Distal tubule? the others are associated with the glomerulus, though this is a bullshit question because the DCT also “contacts” the area around the glomerulus (aff. arteriole)
      5) Collecting duct
      6) Long loops of henle (everything else contacts the cortex)
      7) Collecting duct
      8) Glomeruli are nowhere near the others (physically or functionally)
      9) Aldosterone is from the adrenal glands.. everything else is dealing with the hypothalamus
      10) Secretion, glomerulus makes a filtrate from the blood… PCT reabsorbs and secretes
      11) K absorption… aldosterone causes loss of more K
      12) Down BP
      13) down K retention
      14) up HCO3 in urine… cannot have low pH and increased HCO3
      15) … could go a couple ways with this since the renal pelvis in the kidney has transitional epithelium (I think)… otherwise I would say kidney because everything else is in the bladder
      16) forms urine
      17) continuous w/ renal pelvis?

      Next time change the numbers so that it doesn’t look like this was only a 17 question quiz… if it was, then shame on you. Learn the endocrine stuff well because it is tougher than the rest.

  32. QUESTION:
    Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the filtrate by the…?
    1.Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the filtrate by the
    A)loop of Henle.
    B)distal tubule.
    C)proximal tubule.
    D)ureter.
    E)glomerulus.

    2.Antidiuretic hormone
    A)acts to increase the amount of urine formed.
    B)controls the amount of fluid filtered from the blood.
    C)controls the emptying of the bladder.
    D)decreases reabsorption.
    E)increases the permeability of the collecting tubule to water.

    3.Erythropoietin is released in response to
    A)high blood oxygen levels.
    B)high blood pressure.
    C)dehydration.

    4. Which of the following most closely resemble a vertebrate kidney?
    A)nephridia
    B)flame cells
    C)protonephridia
    D)protoglomerulus
    E)nephrostomes

    5.Wastes are moved from blood to nephron by
    A)secretion.
    B)reabsorption.
    C)filtration.
    D)Choices A, B, and C are all correct.
    E)Choices A and C are correct, but B is not.

    • ANSWER:
      1. c. The only location in the nephron with Na+/glucose co-transporters is the proximal convoluted tubule.

      2. e. ADH targets the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct, making them more permeable to water, thus decreasing urine formation.

      3. I’m guessing there was a misprint, because erythropoietin is released in response to low blood oxygen levels; it acts on the bone marrow to increase the production of red blood cells.

      4. I’m not positive, but from reading about all the answers, c, protonephridia seems the closest.

      5. e. choices a (secretion) and c (filtration) are correct, but b (reabsorption) is not.

  33. QUESTION:
    Urinary review question?
    Urinary System Review

    1. The main function of the urinrary system is:
    a. absorb nutrients
    b. remove waste products form the blood
    c. make blood cells
    d. remove carbon dioxide

    2. The outer portion of the kidney is called the:
    a. cortex c. medulla
    b. hilus d. pleura

    3. The structural and functional unit of the kidney is called:
    a. renal tubule c. nephron
    b. renal corpuscle d. Bowman’s capsule

    4. A cup like, double walled structure with an inner filtering membrane best
    describes the
    a. glomerulus c. renal tubule
    b. Bowman’s capsule d. loop of Henle

    5. The composition of the filtrate can be altered by the
    a. glomerulus c. renal tubule
    b. Bowman’s capsule d. renal corpuscle

    6. The process of filtration occurs at the
    a. convoluted tubule c. loop of Henle
    b. Bowman’s capsule d. renal tubule

    7. Reabsorption of filtrate is carried out by the
    a. convoluted tubule c. renal tubule
    b loop of Henle d. glomerulus

    8. Which of the following is not normally found in urine?
    a. urea c. water
    b. uric acid d. glucose

    9. Occasionally, renal ______develop and disrupt normal flow.
    a. calculi c. distension
    b. stones d. a and b
    10. The ureter carries urine from the
    a. bladder to urethra c. kidney to bladder
    b. bladder to kidney d. ureters to urethra

    11. Women have more problems than men with urinary tract infections due to the fact the
    a. ureter is so short and close to the anus
    b. bladder is so small
    c. urethra is so short and close to the anus
    d. bladder is larger

    12. The hormone ADH works on the:
    a. distal convoluted tubule to promote water loss
    b. distal convoluted tubule to promote water reabsorption
    c. on the loop of Henle to promote water reabsorption
    d. Bowman’s capsule to promote water reabsorption

    13. Inflammation of the renal pelvis is called
    a. leptospirosis c. pyelitis
    b. nephritis d. renalitis

    14. Diuretics will cause body fluids to become
    a. hypertonic c. hypotonic
    b. hypoosmotic d. isotonic

    15. The basic principle behind dialysis is:
    a. passive diffusion across selectively permeable membranes
    b. active diffusion across selectively permeable membranes
    c. active diffusion across impermeable membranes

    16. Blood volume and pressure increase due to a series of changes initiated by the enzyme
    a. ADH c. rennin
    b. angiotensin II d. carbonic acid

    • ANSWER:
      It’s so funny when people try to cheat on assignments. You should be able to find everything in there on wikipedia. Why are you asking someone else to do it for you?

  34. QUESTION:
    Bio vagina structure?
    Blood leaving the liver has a high concentration of urea, which is formed by the

    a)deamination of amino acids.
    b) denaturation of protein.
    c) digestion of proteins.
    d) detoxification of lactic acid

    Osmoreceptors are cells sensitive to

    a) the core body temperature regulating diuresis.
    b) blood pressure regulating the strength and rate of the heart beat.
    c) the concentration of water (solvent) and/or particles (solute) in the blood.
    d) the amount of food in the stomach to regulate hunger.

    A person took in a mid-day brunch and consumed numerous food items that contain a high content of salt. A homeostatic response by the body would

    a) to have a great thirst sensation later in the afternoon.
    b) inhibit the osmoreceptors creating a thirst sensation.
    c) to eliminate a large volume of urine.
    d) inhibit the hypothalamus resulting in more urine formation

    If blood plasma is dilute, then the hypothalamus

    a) decreases ADH release resulting in more water reabsorption and more urine excretion.
    b) increases ADH resulting in less water reabsorption and more urine excretion.
    c) decreases ADH release resulting in less water reabsorption and more urine excretion.
    d) increases ADH release resulting in more water reabsorption and more urine excretion.

    One function of the kidney is to
    a) regulate acid-base balance.
    b) form urea.
    c) secrete antidiuretic hormone.
    d) regulate body temperature.

    When the pituitary gland releases an increased amount of antidiuretic hormone, it causes
    a) reduced water reabsorption by the capillaries.
    b) increased urine volume.
    c) decreased permeability of the nephrons to water.
    d) reduced urine volume.

    The amount of fluid retained in the body is regulated by both
    a)aldosterone and insulin.
    b) erythropoietin and secretin.
    c) aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone.
    d) antidiuretic hormone andd gastrin.

    It was observed that an experimental subject consistently passed a larger volume of urine after consuming three cups of black unsweetened tea containing caffeine than after consuming an equal volume of sweetened lemonade. Assume all other variables were carefully controlled.

    Which hypothesis is based on an appropriate body response to the active ingredient identified in the beverage ?

    a) The caffeine in the tea caused a reduction in the secretion of ADH by the pituitary gland.
    b) The sugar in the lemonade provided additional energy for the active transport of water out of the nephrons.
    c) The caffeine in the tea caused the liver to produce more urea.
    d) The sugar in the lemonade blocked the reabsorption of water by the distal tubules of the kidney.

    After an individual drinks large quantities of water, the blood becomes slightly diluted. The body immediately reacts by
    a) increasing the secretion of ADH.
    b) reabsorbing more sodium ions from the filtrate of the nephron into the blood.
    c) increasing the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal glands.
    d) decreasing the secretion of ADH.

    In an artificial kidney, blood is pumped through dialysis tubing (semipermeable tubing) which is immersed in a tank of washing or dialyzing solution. The blood is cleansed because
    a) urea and other impurities diffuse into the wash solution.
    b) chemical cleansers diffuse into the blood from the wash solution.
    c) water from the wash solution enters the blood by osmosis.
    d) poisons from the blood are actively transported out of the tubing.

    Dialysis machines purify blood by passing it through semi-permeable cellophane tubing immersed in a tank of dialysing fluid. Wastes are transferred through the tubing into the fluid. A system of this type can perform all the functions of a normal kidney except the
    a) diffusion of salts into the blood.
    b) active transport of substances out of the blood.
    c) filtration of smaller particles into the nephron.
    d) osmosis of water into the collecting duct.

    An activity that increases as a result of untreated diabetes mellitus is

    a)storage of energy for tissue activities.
    b) use of sugar by tissue cells.
    c) release of insulin from the pancreas.
    d) excretion of glucose by the kidneys.

    Arteriolar dilation throughout the body would cause urine production to decrease because the
    a)osmotic pressure of the blood plasma would decrease.
    b) osmotic pressure of the blood plasma would increase.
    c) blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries would increase.
    d) blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries would decrease.
    Rocket squirrel its only bio 20 im not planning on becoming a nurse….if its so basic why dont you answer them?

    • ANSWER:
      1.a. the nitrogen group from amino acids are converted to urea
      2.c.
      3.a.
      4.c.
      5.a.
      6.c.
      7.c.
      8.a.
      9.d.
      10.a.
      11.b.
      12.d.
      13.d. Blood pressure is necessary for glomerular filtration

  35. QUESTION:
    Which of the following is a correct statement about pepsin?
    A. it splits maltose into monosaccharides
    B. it is manufactured by the pancreas
    C. it is activated by the action of HCL on pepsinogen
    D. it is denatured and rendered in solutions with low pH
    E. it helps stabalize fat-water emultions

    All of the following statements about digestion are correct except:
    A. during digestion polysaccharides and disaccharides are split into simple sugars
    B. during digestion the essential macromolecules are directly absorbed
    C. digestion cleaves nucleic acis into nucleotides
    D. digestion cleaves fats into glycerol and fatty acids
    E. digestion is catalyzed by enzymes

    What are antigens?
    A. proteins embedded in B cell membranes
    B. antibody-generating foreigh macromolecules
    C. proteins found in the blook that cause foreigh blood cells to clump
    D. proteins that consist of two light and two heavy polypeptide chains
    E. both A and C are correct

    Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize
    A. blood pressure
    B. endocytosis
    C. diffusion
    D. active transport
    E. osmosis

    Three-chambered hearts generally consist of the following numbers of atria and ventricles?
    A. two atrial, one ventricle
    B. one atrium one ventricle
    C. three atria no ventricle
    D. no atria three ventricles
    one atrium two ventricles

    Which part of the vertebrate nephron consist of capillaries?
    A. loop of Henle
    B. Bowman’s capsule
    C. collecting tubule
    D. glomerulus
    E. distal tubule

    Which of the following processes of somoregulation by the kidney is the least selective?
    A. salt pumping to control osmolarity
    B. H+ ion pumping to control pH
    C. filtration
    D. secretion
    E. reabsortion

    If an otherwise normal nerve cell were made permeable to large negative ions what would happen?
    A. sodium would not enter the resulting cell
    B. The NA+/K+ pump would not function
    C. potassium would not leave the resting cell
    D. the membrane potential would not form
    E. the membrane potential would become positive

    The sodium-potassium pump of neurons pumps
    a. Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell
    b. Na+ and K+ into the cell and H+ out of the cell through an antiport
    c. Na+and K+ into the cell
    d. Na+ into the cell and K+ out of the cell
    e. Na+ and K+ out of the cell

    • ANSWER:
      the ones jane didnt answer is:
      4 is c. the countercurrent exchange system is enhance the diffusion of substances in and out of the gills.
      5 is i think you didnt label the last option as E. but three chanbered hearts there may be a single atrium with two ventricles or a single ventricle with two atria it is called congenital abnormality.(amphibians and most reptiles have a heart with three chambers—two atria and a single ventricle)
      8 is i think D

  36. QUESTION:
    HELP WHICH ones are TRUE!!! 10 pts?
    which of the following are in involved in “filtration”
    a) Hemolymph in invertebrates

    b) Interstitial fluid in vertebrates

    c) Flame bulb of Protonephridia in planarian worm

    d) Malpighian tubule of an insect

    e) Glomerulus of a mammalian kidney

    h) Octopus heart

    Which of the following statements are true?
    a.The mammalian heart beat is paced by the specialized cells in the left atrium
    b) Blood bathes most cells in vertebrates
    c) Hemolymph bathes most cells in invertebrates
    d) A closed circulation may have arterial sphincters
    e) A closed circulation may have arteriolar sphincters
    f) Electrical connections are not possible between cells because the cells short out.
    g) Blood pressure is the main forced that generates interstitial fluid that bathes cells.
    h) The hearts of a crocodile and a snake have the same number of atria and ventricles as an avian heart.
    i) Valve in hearts and blood vessels are critical for unidirectional blood flows.
    u can have more than one that is true

    • ANSWER:
      > HELP WHICH ones are TRUE!!! 10 pts?
      I have absolutely no idea, but that’s not going to stop me from answering the question. Fortunately my grade isn’t on the line.

      > which of the following are in involved in “filtration”
      a) Hemolymph in invertebrates
      True. Sure, why not?

      b) Interstitial fluid in vertebrates
      True. It’s filtered through capillary walls.

      c) Flame bulb of Protonephridia in planarian worm
      True. They cause filtration to happen, by dint of expelling water from the organism.

      d) Malpighian tubule of an insect
      True

      e) Glomerulus of a mammalian kidney
      True

      h) Octopus heart
      False. Hey, although it does cause filtration to happen by dint of pressurizing arteries, it’s not really an organ of filtration.

      Which of the following statements are true?
      a.The mammalian heart beat is paced by the specialized cells in the left atrium
      False. The sinoatrial node is located in the right atrium.

      b) Blood bathes most cells in vertebrates
      False. Most cells are bathed by interstitial fluids rather than blood directly.

      c) Hemolymph bathes most cells in invertebrates
      True. *shrug*

      d) A closed circulation may have arterial sphincters
      True

      e) A closed circulation may have arteriolar sphincters
      True

      f) Electrical connections are not possible between cells because the cells short out.
      False

      g) Blood pressure is the main forced that generates interstitial fluid that bathes cells.
      True

      h) The hearts of a crocodile and a snake have the same number of atria and ventricles as an avian heart.
      False. The snake is the odd man out here. Snakes have three-chambered hearts. Crocs and birds have four-chambered hearts. Well, for crocs, that’s a “sort of.” Crocs have an interesting modification of the heart that you should read about, that facilitates them resting underwater while not doing much.

      i) Valve in hearts and blood vessels are critical for unidirectional blood flows.
      True

  37. QUESTION:
    HELP WHICH ones are TRUE!!! 10 pts?
    which of the following are in involved in “filtration”
    a)Hemolymph in invertebrates

    b)Interstitial fluid in vertebrates

    c)Flame bulb of Protonephridia in planarian worm

    d)Malpighian tubule of an insect

    e)Glomerulus of a mammalian kidney

    h)Octopus heart

    Which of the following statements are true?
    a.The mammalian heart beat is paced by the specialized cells in the left atrium
    b)Blood bathes most cells in vertebrates
    c)Hemolymph bathes most cells in invertebrates
    d)A closed circulation may have arterial sphincters
    e)A closed circulation may have arteriolar sphincters
    f)Electrical connections are not possible between cells because the cells short out.
    g)Blood pressure is the main forced that generates interstitial fluid that bathes cells.
    h)The hearts of a crocodile and a snake have the same number of atria and ventricles as an avian heart.
    i)Valve in hearts and blood vessels are critical for unidirectional blood flows.

    • ANSWER:
      I can help you with a couple of these from Human Anatomy.

      The Glomerulus of a mammalian kidney is involved in filtration of urine. (E)
      A. F (SA Node..Right Atrium)