Bun Tests For Kidneys

Are you worrying that your cat has a urinary or kidney problem? After you finish this article you’ll understand what tests are run for cats in kidney failure. The key to lengthening your cat’s life is to contact your vet as soon as possible to have a a series of diagnostic tests run. Your veterinarian will perform blood and urine tests to check for key symptoms for a cat experiencing chronic kidney failure.

Its important to understand some of the vocabulary used to convey the state of the condition for cats in kidney failure. Acute kidney (or renal) failure in your cat is characterized by complete organ failure where the kidneys stop working altogether. Usually, acute renal failure occurs quite suddenly and can affect both young and old cats.This type of kidney disease is almost always fatal but if treated immediately and aggressively, the kidneys may regain normal functions and your cat may live a normal lifespan.

Chronic kidney failure is the more common disease. This type of kidney disease is usually experienced by aging cats when many of their major organs have diminished function. Unfortunately, by the time you notice the symptoms for cats in kidney failure, about 70% of your cat’s kidney functions are already compromised. This is a progressive disease and will eventually result in the death of your cat. However, early diagnosis and aggressive management can keep your cat in comfort and relative good health for months, if not years.

Since cats with a kidney problem typically have small, shriveled kidneys, your vet will palpitate the area and may take x-rays or an ultrasound. The most dependable diagnosis comes from the blood and urine tests taken from your cat.

Blood Tests

A blood test evaluates the BUN level of your cat’s blood. No, this isn’t a level of yeast but BUN stands for the Blood Urea Nitrogen level which is a chemical that the liver makes from ammonia. After production, BUN is excreted into the kidneys, which increases in some diseases especially for cats in kidney failure. The test also is a marker for dehydration in your cat or even a urethral obstruction like bladder stones.

Blood tests also show the level of creatinine in your cat’s blood. Creatinine is the breakdown product of muscle and normally is excreted by the kidneys. If your cat’s creatinine level is abnormally high it helps confirm that your cat’s elevated BUN level was caused by kidney failure.

Urine Tests

When evaluating your cat’s urine, the veterinarian will check for signs of infection, the concentration, and any losses of proteins. When a healthy cat is dehydrated the proteins show at a concentrated level. For cats in kidney failure, this protein concentration is not there which is key to determining if your cat’s kidneys are functioning properly or not.

Frequently Asked Questions

    Comprehensive Metabolic Panel thru privatemdlabs.com?
    I need to get a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) blood test done. it is a general well being test and basically includes a bunch of tests for
    Proteins ( albumin and total protein)
    Electrolytes (Sodium,Potassium, CO2, Chloride )
    Kidney test ( BUN, Creatinine)
    Liver Tests ( ALP, ALT,AST,Bilirubin)

    my work place requires it as part of the yearly physical exam however my PCP does not agree.

    [do any of you'll think that my PCP should not have a problem with prescribing it? coz i dont know what the big deal is...it is routinely ordered as part of a blood work-up for a medical exam or yearly physical exam...plus it sux that my insurance wont cover it then :( ]

    anyways i was thinking of ordering it though www.privatemdlabs.com

    I was wondering if anyone has used their service, as I wanted some general customer service feedback.

    or can you please suggest any other place similar to privatemdlabs.com ?

    • ANSWER:
      If your job requires that this test be performed then, what is the problem with your Doc?? Tell him/her that is mandated by your job and that should cover the cost.He/she doesn’t have to agree with your company policy but, if that is what is required ( the blood test) then so be it !! If worse comes to worse, bring in a note from your employer stating that it is their policy…..etc. This should do the trick.

    Can someone tell me what this means for my mother’s kidney test?
    Her creatinine level is 1.51
    Her BUN is 29
    Her Bun/Creatinine ratio is 19
    Also, if this does indicate kidney disease, how far along is she.

    I don’t know everything the doctor told her because I haven’t talked to her a lot about it yet.

    Thank You
    I am asking because she is 67 and is foriegn born. She speaks english well but needs help understanding medical talk.

    • ANSWER:
      here are some websites you can read about creatinine and BUN:



      it looks like her number are slightly out of range.

    The normal range for a BUN test is 7.9-20.2. Mine was 22.1 is this bad and does it mean kidney failure?

    • ANSWER:

    is it fair to assume that Hydrochlorothiazide 25mg is 10x more in dosage terms than Bendroflumethiazide 2.5mg?
    can a ten fold increase in diuretic use result in raised albumin and BUN levels during testing for kidney function. I am a type 1 diabetic and i know that diabetes can cause increased levels but want to exclude the accide ntal over use of this diuretic as a seperate cause as my protein level has increase from 57mg to 314mg in less than 1 year, during this time i have accidentally been taking 25mg of HTZ rather than 2.5mg Bendroflurerthiazide. Can the protein level be reversed if caused purely by over use of diuretics

    • ANSWER:
      I have a friend who might be able to answer that. Please wait.

    with regards to human kidneys, what does the BUN reference stand for?
    blood test report

    • ANSWER:
      Blood Urea Nitrogen

      You can read about what might cause high or low BUN levels here:


    Need some insight on kidney test results for my dog…?
    I’m prettty technical when it comes to medical issues with dogs, but I would like for someone with this expertise to help me understand some test results.

    One year ago, prior to a sugery, we did a blood panel on my dog for anestesia purposes…it came back with the following:

    BUN 34
    Creatinine 1.8

    The doctor was not concerned – he administered IV fluids for the procedure to be on the safe side, but said it may have been elevated to the stress of being at the vet hospital.

    This week I had a complete blood panel done on her because she seemed depressed and not feeling well at all…everything was great, but the kidney function came back with the following:

    BUN 31
    Creatintine 2.2

    NOW – here is where I just want to kick myself…and believe me I’ve been very upset about this all day…Recently my fridge broke and to salvage all of the fish, pork tenderloin, etc…I fed it to the dogs..Pure protein and tons of it…

    THEN…I changed their food at the same time to a food that is awesome (Orijen), but the protein is almost 37 in the type I got.

    So this is what she was eating for about 2 weeks prior to the blood work (and the freezer stuff).

    1) I’m assuming that can have an impact on the creatinine results…I would like some insight on that…

    2) Let’s remove the higher protein scenario and just focus on the test results – what do they suggest and how bad are they?

    My vets recommendation is to start her on a low protein diet (13% – 16%), do subcutaneous injections once a week (she’ll show me how to do this at home) and start her on Azodyl.

    She is a 7 year old Dalmatian.

    Thanks for helping me out with this.
    Please only serious answers from a credible source/experience…this is a serious situation for us.
    This just happened today and I was only able to have a 10 minute phone conversation with my vet about it. I’m just eager to have some additional advice to help me with this information.
    Obviously this was a mistake to post this on here…Good Lord..It’s Friday on a holiday weekened..I’m anxious about this..just thought there might be someone who is a vet or tech or something who could shed some light.

    As I said on my original post, only reply if you are a credible resource….I don’t care if I don’t get any replies, but you never know….

    • ANSWER:
      The numbers are certainly off. Kidney function does decrease with age but that is a lot of change within a year and she is still fairly young. I would do 2 things. 1 – If at all possible, contact the breeder of the dog. See if there is a history of problems like this in the line and what treatments, if any, have been successful. I am not so sure about BUN/Creatintine but often “normal” numbers for particular breeds/lines can be different than the textbook “normal”.
      2 – get a recommendation for another vet and get a second opinion or perhaps ask your vet to refer you to a specialist for at least a second opinion. You didn’t say what type of injections but the rest of the treatment certainly shouldn’t hurt.
      Best of luck.

    Protein in the urine… Is this a nephrotic syndrome?
    I have trace to 3+ albumin in the urine! The latest lab tests is 3+! I’m bothered with this result so I went to my Nephrologist and have checkup and some laboratoty works. My GFR, blood Crea, abd BUN were normal. Also, my liver and blood chemistry were normal. I was diagnosed to have 3.3mm kidney stone, high cholesterol and hypertension so I’m currently taking meds for that. My latest test say my BP and cholesterol went down and no edema BUT the protein in my urine still at 3+ ! I wonder what causes protein in my urine? Is this a Nephrotic Syndrome? It’s almost 4 years since I knew I had protein in the urine but all blood and kidney tests were ok.

    • ANSWER:
      It’s not nephrotic syndrome. That is when a person has huge amounts of protein in their urine and is much more serious. The nephrologist is the best person to answer your question, since there are many causes for having protein in your urine. One cause is hypertension, so ask if it could be that. Also it is something that can develop in people with diabetes. Or it may be related to the kidney stone. I presume they are planning to remove the stone – they will probably see what happens after that.

    lab work results/kidney BUN/creatinine?
    my BUN was 16/creatinine was 0.8. i asked the nurse if that was ok and she said yes. what are some high or “bad” numbers for these two tests?
    so then, are my results truly ok?

    • ANSWER:

    Dog has Kidney Problems?
    When I got out of the shower this morning I found that my dog had knocked over my coffee table and chewed up a small bottle of eye drops for contacts. I immediately took him to my vet. They did a CBC w/ profile and a fecal exam. When I picked him up my vet told me he needed to talk to me because they found something on my little boy. On the blood test his BUN level was 30 and they said normal was 7-25. They told me his had kidney problems and sold me Azodyl and K/D pet food. They said I would need to spend a month to give him these pills twice a day everyday for the rest of his life. He is very picky, pill pockets do not work, peanut butter and bread doesn’t work. It takes me about 20 minutes to put it in his mouth and make him sallow one. He holds it in his mouth until I force water in. I hate doing this. Can you determine kidney disease with one test? Should I get a second opinion? Should my vet refund the medicine if he was wrong and didn’t do more test?
    I currently feed my dogs Wellness and do not care for Science Diet because it contains Corn Glueten Meal which to my knowledge dogs can not easily digest so how would this help kidney problems when he cant even digest it?
    The only test they did were the CBC blood with profile and the fecal exam. I am really upset about it and he was extremly stressed out from the car ride he hates them and he was terrified at the vet. he gets stressed very easily. He has a appointment next Wednesday and I was planning not giving him the medicine so that he is in the same health as when I took him today minus the eye drops in his tummy.

    • ANSWER:
      Did they do a urinalysis at the same time as the bloodwork? A BUN of 30 really isn’t that high, and without urinalysis it’s absolutely worthless to determine kidney function (something as simple as dehydration could have caused that elevation). If a blood profile is all that was run, and your vet is pushing pills and science diet on you, he’s a quack. I would take your dog to another vet, get another opinion, or at least call another vet about it. If they do the tests, and find that the dog didn’t need the meds after all, go back to the vet that prescribed them and ask for a refund.
      Now, since I don’t know your dog’s full history, and I can’t put my hands on him for a physical exam, I can’t say that your vet was absolutely wrong. Another opinion is definitely a good idea because a month for a “nutritional supplement” that doesn’t go through FDA testing seems a bit fishy to me.
      Good luck with this. I always hope that my colleagues are more honest than this, but you can’t account for them all.

    What does it mean in medical terms if you had horrendous side pain and urinated blood for a while?
    But then the pain cleared up, and you had a liver panel and a BUN:Cr test along with some urine tests a few months later, and there were no abnormalities.

    Then let’s say you finally went to Thailand last year and had a 3D CAT scan and an abdominal ultrasound and more blood/urine tests, and nothing abnormal was detected?

    What could possibly cause a sudden onset of pain in the region of the kidneys, followed by several hours of bloody urine, followed by a spontaneous resolution and no relapses for a period of two years?

    • ANSWER:
      STRAUSSIAN – Your description fits well with the passing of a small kidney stone through the ureter on its way to the bladder and out. Along the passing, the stone probably crumbled into small grains which passed more easily. The blood comes from the sharp edges of the small stone scraping the delicate inside lining of the ureter. Such pain can be very severe and require immediate relief. If anything like that happens again, be sure to strain all your urine through a piece of fine mesh gauze and save (dry) anything that even looks like sand which you would then take to your doctor for a lab analysis of the stone. People who pass such stones tend to have repeat episodes. Often the right set of x-rays will show more calcium carbonate type stones in the pelvis (belly) of the kidney on the side of the pain.

    Why is there no LOW PROTEIN section in Food Store for CKD patients?
    I have CKD (chronic kidney disease) and find it difficult to find food items with no or very low protein in grocery stores. Most people are unaware they have CKD untill its too late. A simple blood test, Creatinine and BUN, will indicate CKD if repeatedly elivated. Also, Protein in your urine is a disclosing factor, although extreme exercise can show a trace of protein in your urine.An ultra low protein diet can help delay or avoid dialysis. Nobody seems to know this!!

    • ANSWER:
      There is a low protein section – it’s called fruit and produce. Other wise just read the nutrition labels. If you are not sure how to read the labels or what to do with the information, make an appointment with a dietician.

    Question about Kidney Disease (Please help)?
    Hello. I suffer from extreme fatigue and have for a while now. My doc is trying to figure out exactly why. A couple of months ago they did a test on my kidney’s and it came back as urgent. My Creatinine level was high at 1.9, BUN was high at 46, GFR(Cauc) low at 33, and GFR(Black) low at 40. Not only that but my Chloride was high, and my Glucose was low. They sent me in immediately the next day for a redo and everything came back normal so they ignored it.

    I have epilepsy and suffer from seizures frequently. Not only am I suffering from severe fatigue, but I have swelling under my eyes and around my fingers. My urine is very dark and foamy. I have pain in my left kidney. Because of the epilepsy I am always confused and disoriented.

    I don’t drink water and I know that is a primary concern. I had blood work drawn yesterday at another hospital to get a second opinion and I’m waiting on the results. My question is this: Will drinking a lot of water now affect or reverse anything that may be happening to my kidneys? Also, can your blood work come back as being normal when it’s really not? Both of my seizure meds can cause kidney failure and I’m afraid that once again, it’s not going to be caught in time. It took them 6 years to figure out that I had epilepsy because all my EEG’s came back normal until it was too late.

    Please help me. Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      The main thing that most doctors will use to see your kidney function is your creatinine, yours as you said is 1.9, which is certainly elevated, my was over 12 before they did my transplant but everybody’s body is different. Most doctors will tell you not to challenge the kidneys when they are failing (if your’s are), so drinking more water could cause more damage. My doctors have told me before that there is numerous things that can affect creatinine levels so it can change from day to day, also many doctors disagree as to what is high creatinine. I would defiantly suggest a second opinion. However, you do not need to stress in the meantime, you won’t die from this there is both dialysis and transplants that can fix this, and if it is only your left kidney you can easily live off of 50% kidney function.

    What do I need to eat prior to kidney function testing?
    My endocrinologist is concerned about my Co2 level, and recommended I see a nephrologist for testing of renal function. I’ve been online scaring myself senseless learning about Chronic Kidney Disease, indications of which fit many of my previously-idiopathic health symptoms perfectly.

    The problem/explanation?

    I’m anorexic, and have been off and on for ten years. If, for instance, one test is used to determine protein levels, what does it mean for the test if I haven’t eaten since November?

    Here are my numbers- labs not mentioned were within ref. range.

    CBC w/ Diff:
    RBC- 5.30 (3.87-5.11)
    Hemoglobin- 15.2 (12.0-15.0)

    Co2- 12 (19-32)
    BUN- 4 (6-23)

    Liver Profile:
    Bilirubin, Total- 1.5 (0.3-1.2)
    Indirect Bilirubin- 1.2 (0.0-0.9)

    Total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio 3.2 < ----- 1/2 avg risk for women
    Glucose- 75 (70-99) <----Normal
    BP- 81/56 <---- Low

    My bilirubin levels have always been high, as have my mother's- mine have dropped significantly since I've lost weight.

    • ANSWER:
      You really, really need to ask the lab what dietary restrictions are necessary, if any. I don’t remember having any restrictions when I was just getting my kidney functions tested.

      While you’re on the phone with the lab, ask them about the urine collection “hats” for women, if you’re female and have problems peeing into a cup. The “hat” is a plastic thingamajiggy that is place over the toilet bowl, and you pee into it instead of the toilet. For those of us who don’t have built in urine aiming devices, they’re much easier to use.

    high BUN level and Creatine levels in my blood test
    I had to get a blood test for nursing school. And it came back high in creatine and BUN… but i don’t think i have any kidney problems or diabetes… everything else is normal.. and the doctor didn’t say anything.. should i worry?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, the high creatinine means that something is going on, there is some kind of kidney damage or dysfunction. When you say you don’t think you have diabetes, were you tested, did your doctor do a workup to determine why your Cr/BUN levels were high? You should also be checked for hypertension. This should be investigated. This may be an acute problem that can be reversed with timely treatment.

    wnant is the side effects?
    want is the side effects of dye radiopharmaceutical ?
    and dye toxicity injection into the body and want could the damage to be to the kidneys are the body?

    would this caused kidney damges are chronic renal failure?
    Blood test #1 BUN 20 CRE 1.7 GFR 45 (A) date 7/24/ 2008
    Blood rtest #2 Glucose 113 Cratinine 1.79 Alk Phos 150 Fasting BS 113 Bs 2 HR 267 EST GFR 42.4 date 8/27/2008
    Blood test #3 BUN 25 Creatinine 1.56 ALK PHOS 140 EST GFR 49.6 date 1/08/08
    Blood test #4 GLUCOSE 223 BUN 18 EST GFR 41.5 date 8/20/2008
    test #5 URTP 15 24 TP 224.3 CRE / SERUM 1.59 CLEAR 59.0 Total Volume 1495 (A) LABHP REG CLI STATUS: REG CLI.
    DIAGNOSES for test CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE ICD-585.9 date 8/4/2008 CPT-76775 code.

    • ANSWER:
      Well, I’m not really sure this is the right forum for the question, but no, I don’t believe the dye could cause renal failure (kidney failure). I have a ten month old daughter who was born with a kidney defect and had to go through a couple of renograms, where dye was used, and she is perfectly fine.

      If the above information is for a baby, I can tell you that the creatinine levels are quite high. Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that your body produces and your a functioning kidney will remove it from your blood. High creatinine levels are an indicator that the kidneys are not functioning. A normal creatinine level for a baby is about 0.2, however, I believe the numbers above are within an acceptable range for an adult.

      Also, the blood sugar levels (glucose) seem high. A random blood sugar test should be in the low to mid 100′s, anything over 200 is usually diagnosed as diabetes for adults, and as far as I can tell, you have a blood sugar (glucose) of 223. Diabetes can cause kidney failure.

      The rest of the stuff I have no idea about, but I have had some experience with the creatinine and diabetes so I hope this has helped some.

    PLS HELP Blood test show high ast, alt, vitm b12, calicum, bun/creati, neutrophils & sed rate. Low HCT, HGB…?
    My child is 5, shes been having repeated blood work done for about 6 months now, b/c some of her levels were turning up high or low for what the range is for her age. After her last blood work her PCP ran on her, he is referring her to a Gastro. Specialist. She will be going on Feb. 2nd. I am looking to see if, can get someone to explain or help me understand her blood work more through. Also, if anyone could tell me what may possible be going on with her. I am not looking for someone to give her a diagnosis. Just for someone to give me some more info on what possible could be going on with my princess. It is so hard for me to just sit here and wait til Feb. to find out more information. How is a mother suppose to do that? Her PCP did tell me that he is referring her to a specialist to see if he wants to do further testing and that her blood work results could be showing something wrong with her kidneys, liver or some kind of cancer. Cancer does run on her fathers side. His mother has had one kind of skin cancer & his grandmother on his fathers side passed away from some kind of skin cancer.
    We do not want to ask more info from the family, until we know what is going on with our little girl. We dont want to get anyone worried or upset til we know more info.
    I have done some research but still not understand a whole lot of it. I have read that to determine cancers, liver problems and kidney problems that you have to look at several numbers on blood work, not just one certain one.
    Below I will list her blood work that say abnormal and see if someone can explain them to me better. Thank you inadvance to anyone that helps me understand what may be going on or what could be going on with my little princess. I will list her results for both her 2 past labs:

    9/14/09 12/16/09
    *Fasting *Non-Fasting
    Glucose: 96 (High) 105
    Bun: 15 13
    Creatinine: 0.40 (low) 0.49 (low)
    Bun/Creat ratio: 37.5 (high) 26.5 (high)
    Calcium: 10.2 (high) 10.4 (high)
    Ast: 49 (high) 50 (high)
    Alt: 26 (high) 24
    Vitamin B12: (didnt check on 9/14/09) 944 (high)
    Hgb: 11.5 (low) 11.3 (low)
    Hct: 32.0 (low) 31.9 (low)
    Mcv: 75.4 (low) 76.4
    Neutrophil: 55 (high) 59 (high)
    Sed rate: 29 (high) 32 (high)
    Hgb A1c: 5.6 wasnt checked on 12/19/09

    Her urine was checked as well, but just on 9/14/09. They only thing that was flagged on that test was Spec. gravity which was 1.015 (considered low)

    In the doctors notes: It reads On percussion, there is dullness heard in the left lower quadrant compared to the rest of her abdomen, which is tympanic. The child has halitosis also. WHAT DOES this mean?

    Other smpthoms:
    Frequent urination
    Not feeling like she can always empty bladder & has to go to the bathroom w/in several mins (10-15mins apart)
    Several accidents prer day, cant get to the bathroom before she feels the urge to go.
    Tires out easily.
    Trouble gaining weight
    thristy often
    feels hungry often but most times cant not eat much, just a few bites, before she is full or loses appetite
    Has headaches from time to time
    Complains of pain in lower back at times as well as under arm pit.
    Complains of abdominal pain everyday.
    Acid reflux along with burps that smell like softer.

    I know this is a lot, I aplogize. Just trying to provide as much detial as possible, to see if I can get any help understanding what may be going on with my little girl.
    You can email me also at littlehandscreatingthefuture@yahoo.com

    THANK YOU INADVANCE for any HELP you can provide me with!
    Worried mommy!!

    • ANSWER:
      Dear Worried, JustMe Mom:

      This is the 2nd installment of my long detailed answer for your question that is also posted in various sections e,g, Medicine, Diseases, Toddler, Preschooler. Parenting, etc. Pls note that I have included various reference sites.

      To view the first installment of this answer for your similar question posted under Other- Disease section; check the site below:


      I have also e-mailed you my complete thoroughly researched answer.

      Kidney functions:

      Her urine specific gravity of 1.015 is WNL. If it’s high; it would be darkly concentrated( Sp Gr> 10.20) and would likely be due to dehydration.

      Normal BUN:Cr Ratio is <20:1 mg/dl
      Location of Renal disorder
      Pre-renal disease (before glomeruli)
      Mechnism: Reduced flow causes elevated creatinine and BUN due to decreased GFR. Additionally, BUN reabsorption is increased because of the lower flow; BUN is disproportionately elevated relative to creatinine.

      Therefore, her BUN:Cr ratio is indeed high at 26.5- 37.5 %.

      The normal value for BUN is approximately 10-20, and for creatinine 0.7-1.2.

      Therefore, her BUN of 13-15 is WNL. However, her Cr of 0.40-0.49 is quite low......abnormally low.

      The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test is a measure of the amount of nitrogen in the blood in the form of urea, and a measurement of renal function. Urea is a substance secreted by the liver, and removed from the blood by the kidneys.

      BUN and creatinine are excreted by the kidneys and accumulate in the bloodstream when a person has kidney failure. Therefore, with renal disease, the BUN and creatinine usually both rise together. However, there are some conditions in which one rises more than the other, and some (as in your daughter's case ) where one is normal while the other is low.

      Here are some possible explanations:
      1) Lab error. A creatinine of 0.4- 0.5 is unusually low. Could it be incorrect? Could the lab have been having a bad day, or did someone miscopy an 0.8 as an 0.5?

      2) Dehydration: if you were dehydrated at the time the lab test was done (for example, were having a GI viral illness), the BUN may have increased just due to dehydration (resulting in a high ratio), and should have come back down as soon as you had enough water in your body.

      3) Heart failure or liver cirrhosis: both of these conditions can cause a high BUN/creat ratio in the absence of kidney problems.

      4) Very high protein diet: a very high protein diet may increase the BUN without affecting creatinine, so that the ratio may become elevated. (Did you eat a giant steak the night before your blood test?)

      5) GI bleeding: if there is a bleeding ulcer or bleeding of any type anywhere in the stomach or intestines, the BUN will rise disproportionately from the creatinine.I ncreased production of urea is seen in cases of moderate or heavy bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal(GI) tract (e.g. from ulcers). The

      6) Steroids: in people taking high doses of steroid medications such as prednisone, the BUN can be elevated, causing a high calculatedBUN/creatinine ratio.

      Enhanced metabolism of proteins will also increase urea production, as may be seen with high protein diets, steroid use, burns, or fevers; or kidney stones.

      I'm sure that your doctor will want to repeat this test before doing anything else about it.

      Acute renal failure(ARF)
      It has been found to be predictive of pre-renal failure, if the BUN-to-creatinine ratio is greater than 20 or the urea-to-creatinine ratio>0.10 and urea>10.

      When the ratio of BUN to creatinine (BUN:Cr) is greater than 20, the patient is suspected of having prerenal azotemia. This means that the pathologic process is unlikely to be due to intrinsic kidney damage.

      In addition, in children, a BUN/creatinine ratio of 30 or above has a sensitivity of 68.8% for upper GI bleeding and a specificity of 98%.

      Elevated BUN with very low creatinine is possibly indicative of early acute renal/kidney failure.

      For accuracy of determination of kidney/renal disease or dysfunction; she would need a 24- hr urine collection for creatinine clearance.

      A 24-hr urine collection for creatinine clearance is a more accurate diagnostic tool for early renal/ kidney disease.

      Sometimes, in more than one instances; the high BUN: Cr ratio is most typically the result of being dehydrated when she had the blood work done.
      So most likely insignificant assuming that the creatinine value is normal. In other words when a ‘healthy’ patient has a high BUN and low Cr, it’s typically an indication that you’ve not been drinking enough water. It’s hardly something to worry about.

      The problem here coupled with high hepatic panel ( high AST and ALT) There is a need to do another test for alkaline phosphatase. To confirm any abnormality results.

      I don’t want to get all too technical with you, but let’s assume she has an elevated Bilirubin level on the Liver Panel, a low alk phos effectively rules out an obstruction of the common bile duct.

      So, now it will involve your internist doing some imaging, serology and perhaps additional tests to figure out why there’s a problem with your liver panel.

      I think that the ultrasound is a reasonable thing to do. It’ll most likely be normal or may show gallstones (which you shouldn’t worry about if she’s asymptomatic).

      If you get the radiologist’s report suspecting and suggesting she might have some “hypoechoic or hypotenuse lesions or hemangiomas, and recommend f/u ( follow-up) with triple phase CT/MRI”. Don’t get freaked out. These are extremely common, benign lesions.

      The false positive findings can lead to unecessary anxiety and further testing.

      Because multiple variables can interfere with the interpretation of a BUN value, GFR and creatinine clearance are more accurate markers of kidney function. Age, sex, and weight will alter the “normal” range for each individual, including race.

      In renal failure or chronic kidney disease (CKD), BUN will only be elevated outside “normal” when more than 60% of kidney cells are no longer functioning. Hence, more accurate measures of renal function are generally preferred to assess the clearance for purposes of medication dosing.



      All cells need calcium in order to work. Calcium helps build strong bones and teeth. It is important for heart function, and helps with muscle contraction, nerve signaling, and blood clotting.
      Drinking too much milk or taking too much vitamin D as a dietary supplement can also increase calcium levels.

      Normal Results
      Normal values range from 8.5 to 10.2 mg/dL.

      So her Calcium level of 10.2-10.4 is moderately high.

      What Abnormal Results Mean

      Higher-than-normal levels may be due to:
      Addison’s disease
      Excessive vitamin D level
      Excessive calcium intake
      Metastatic bone tumor
      Milk-alkali syndrome
      Multiple myeloma
      Overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism)
      Paget’s disease
      Prolonged immobilization
      Tumors producing a parathyroid hormone-like substance
      Use of certain medications


      Hypercalcemia( high blood Ca) is a disorder that most commonly results from malignancy or primary hyperparathyroidism. Other causes of elevated calcium are less common and usually are not considered until malignancy and parathyroid disease are ruled out.

      Her symptoms of thirst( polydipsia); hunger (polyphagia) and frequent urination ( polyuria ) fatigue; abdominal pains are hallmarks of Diabetes Type 1 . Formerly known as Juvenile Diabetes.

      The pain on her lower back might be due to UTI or kidney problem.( also related to DM- diabetes) Her halitosis( her burps smell of sulfur) can also be attributed to this kidney or GI problems. Hiccoughing( hiccups) in acute renal failure patients is common due to the toxins not adequately eliminated by the malfunctioning kidney.

      Breath odor and persistent hiccups are among the symptoms of acute renal failure.

      Her abdominal pains and poor appetite might also be attributed to some liver disease or GI problems. Her acid reflux might also be due to GERD ( gastroesophageal reflux disease) and IBS( irritable Bowel Syndrome) Thus the frequent burps. Hope; the doctor will plan to do a liver biopsy and an ultrasound.

      If abdominal pain or signs of peritonitis are localized in the left lower quadrant, the suspicion is increased for such conditions as colitis, diverticulitis, ureteral colic or pain due to ovarian cysts or pelvic inflammatory disease.(PID) or splenic disorder ( evidenced by the spleen- dullness upon percussion of the left lower quadrant ( LLQ).

      Examples of tumors in the left lower quadrant include colon cancer or ovarian tumor.

      Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood.

      The normal blood level of vitamin B12 ranges between 200 and 600 picogram/milliliter (148-443 picomol/liter).

      Although deficiency is far more common than excess when it comes to vitamin B12 status; cases have been reported where blood levels exceeded 3000 picograms/milliliter. Such high levels may be caused by bacterial overgrowth and a condition called Vit B12 Overload.

      Moreover, for her high Vit B12 levels; the gastroenterologist might need to perform a new endoscopy, in order to dismiss or rule out the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease or Celiac disease.



    My 7 year old daughter had blood work done today? sugar? BUN?
    After the doctor told me the sugar was up a little….(and being worried because she has one kidney due to cancer), I realized she had a few Wint-O-green mints while we waited. I looked it up and four of them has about for 8g and she had three, about an hour before the blood was drawn. Would this be enough to effect the test results?
    Also her BUN (blood urea nitrogen) was up about three pionts putting her at 19..normal limit is 18…does anyone know what the scary numbers for a child are?

    • ANSWER:
      BUN of 19 is OK. It can be elevated when the patient is dehydrated. Had she had much to drink before the test was done? And yes, the mints may have made her blood sugar go up a little. How high was it? BUN may have also been higher because of her only having one kidney.

    What do these numbers mean?
    My husband and I found out that last year that he has kidney disease and only one functional kidney. We have been monitoring his his kidney function test ( I am the medical assistant for my hubby’s doctor) I drew his blood at home yesterday and brought it into work to send out. His BUN was 28, which it has been much higher before. The number that is bothering me the most is the creatinine which is 1.81. I am really worried and my doc is out today… what does this mean?? What should be the next step? I dont want to let it get out of hand before I take action… I am scared and want to get some opinions on what we should be doing… thanks for any suggestions.

    • ANSWER:
      Inflamed kidneys from diabetes? Avoid sugar.
      A1C diabetes tests are easy.

    How much water should a dog drink a day?
    Is there a formula of sorts? Our dog was in for a dental cleaning a week ago and the pre-anesthetic blood panel showed a slightly elevated BUN level and a high creatinine (2.5). The vet asked if he was showing signs of kidney failure (excessive water intake, lack of appetitie, lethargic, accidents in the house). He’s shown none of these signs. He actually doesn’t seem to drink enough. Urine test showed bacteria-so he’s currently on an antibiotic, but the bacteria culture came back “no growth” – so she said it must not have been a significant infection. He also had low urine concentration. He goes back at the end of this week for another urine test. Since then we bought bottled water-thinking our softened well water might not be good for stressed kidneys. I’ve been measuring and he only drinks about 2.5 cups of water a day, even though he has an endless supply. That doesn’t seem like enough. He’s 95 pounds, 8 years old, Chesapeake Bay Retriever. Will ask the vet this week of course.

    • ANSWER:
      I think bottled water is a good idea. I agree that for a 95 pound dog that 2.5 cups sounds low. Maybe try putting icecubes in the water…not to make it cold, but to make it more interesting to him. It may help.

    foamy urine while peeing standing up, no foam when sitting down?
    When I pee my urine is very foamy and does not disappear for a few minutes. I went online and seen that it can be a sign of proteniria, which protein in the urine. This could be a sign of kidney problems. I went to doc, he ordered all sorts of test like: microalbumin with creatine, microalbumin/creatine ratio, bun, creatine, many protein blood test, cbc, liver, and kidney blood work. All came back perfectly normal. I even made an appointment to neurpologist and he pretty much just laughed me out the door. My gp told me to drink more water and not to worry about it.

    What’s weird is when I aim for side of the toilet or sit down and pee, no bubbles of foam. Could it just be the velocity? I am a healthy 26, no history of family diseases or cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      Common sense tells me it’s only a gravity problem. You stand up and it hits harder in the water causing foam. Silly to have all that testing done over nothing, but at least you know you are healthy. I would have liked to seen the look on the doctors face when you complained about that one.

    took our dog to the vet,he suddenly could barley walk &had bloodshot,droopy eyes.Could be Addisons or kidneys?
    we took rocky a 3yr old dog to the vets he had weakness,elevated kidney values, elevated potassium, decreased sodium/chloride, elevated muscle enzymes. They gave him injections of IM/SQ/IP , antibiotics & IV fluid therapy.We picked him up 3 days later & he was better, but they dont know what was wrong. It cost ,025. they said it could be Addisons,but that test is another 0. The vet said it could be kidney diease, but they dont know. i have wiped out my checking & savings & they want more $$ for more test (i dont have it) & WE STILL DONT KNOW, WHAT , WHY, OR IF IT WILL HAPPEN AGAIN!!!!Does any one have any ideas?He had highlevels of AST(SGOT),CK TOXO,MYOSITIS,NEOSPORN,AMYLASE,BUN,CREATININE,PHOSPHORUS,POTASSIUM,B/C RATIO,MCHC,ANION GAP,LYMPHOCYTES… Low levels of CHOLESTEROL,TCO2(BICARBONATE,CHLORIDE,SODIUM,NA/K RATIO,NEUTROPHIL SEG… I dont know what the blood test was when he was brought in ,(I just know he was near death). This is the results when we picked him up!!!

    • ANSWER:
      Addisons DOES frequently come on very fast – people have started out on a walk with a dog they thought very heatlhy and had it fall down half way due to addisons. Typically the IV fluids produce a temporary near Lazarus like recovery but he WILL crash again if it is Addison’s. The blood test for Addison’s is unfortunately expensive – some vets will allow the “duck” test (if the treatment works they must have Addison’s) but many will not. Now the bad news the vet may give you a rather high cost for treatment – HOWEVER the use of compounded meds can bring that cost to around a month. Check out these websites
      Both of these are home pages of support lists for addison dog owners. READ all that info and you will know more about addisons disease than some vets. I can testify the support lists are a GODSEND – with referrals to Addisons savvy vets, low meds sources, advice on life with an Addison’s dog and understanding shoulders to cry on when things get rough….
      Member have not just family pets, but competing agility dogs (to the national tournament level), working service dogs. working search & rescue dogs, field trial dogs – Once treated properly an AD dog can do nearly anything another dog can do – including living to be very old.

    Child has recurring blood work done, showing AST, ALT, SED RATE & BUN/CREAT RATIO high? What could this mean?
    My 5 yr. old daughter has been going to a lot of test lately, to try to find out what is going on with her. Her first blood test she had done showed high AST, ALT, SED RATE & BUN/CREAT RATIO. (They were all high) The blood work was repeated 4 months later and all of them have gone up higher, some of them much higher, some of them just a little. She is now being referred to a Gasterneologist (sp?) to have further testing done. However, she cant get in til March. Her PCP said… it could mean several things, anything from her liver, kidneys or some type of cancer. Can anyone please tell me if they have blood work done that came out with all of these being high and what it was or what you were dignioused with. I dont understand how I am suppose to wait til March for my daughter to have further testing done. Is there anywhere else I can go to have her blood results interrepted and explained to me more through. Her AST is 55, ALT is 32, BUN/CREAT is 40.1 and her SED RATE is 50.
    I am not looking for someone to give me a diagnious for her, over the computer. Just for some support and some information on what others may have been diagnioused with, with blood results like this.
    Thank you advance to anyone that response to this. I appreciate it!!

    • ANSWER:
      The bottom line is that blood tests can only tell you so much. It sounds like she had a basic blood panel done. The AST and ALT are liver enzymes. If they are high her liver is not functioning properly. The sedementation rate, bun, and creatinine are measures of kidney function and indicate her kidneys also are not functioning properly. She will probably need to undergo further tests or procedures or more extensive bloodwork to figure out what the specific problem is. Until then I would make sure you try your best not to tax her kidneys or liver (like don’t give her any drugs unless she absolutely needs them) and look for another specialist you can go to. There’s got to be more than one that is covered under your insurance. You don’t have to go to the specialist your PCP referred you to, there are thousands of gastroenterologists out there, but sometimes PCPs refer to a particular one because they have a good relationship with them, but you’re not locked into that particular gastroenterologist. Contact your insurance and get a list of all the GI specialists within driving distance and then call them all, make the earliest apt, and put your name on the cancellation waiting list.

    Are My Kidneys Failing?
    I went for an annual physical and my doctor told me there was a slight decrease in kidney function since my last physical. I guess the pertinent numbers are: BUN = 16, Creatinine = 1.5. I went in 6 weeks later and it was: BUN = 16, and Creatinine = 1.38. He said that while it has improved, it’s still not normal and wants me to see a kidney doctor. My appointment is next month.

    I mentioned this to a friend who is an advanced diabetic and very experienced with kidney problems. He said the writing is on the wall and it’s just a matter of time before I’m on dialysis or worse. He said the 1.5 Creatinine means my kidneys are only funtioning at 50% capacity. Others I’ve talked to said the numbers don’t appear that far out of line. In the meantime…

    I’m freaking out! I’ve never had anything come back abnormal on a blood test before. I might be becoming a hypochondriac over this. Before my physical, I felt fine. Now I’m imagining that my lower back feels swollen and painful, that I’m not urinating right, etc. How worried should I be about this? Is it true that I’m looking at total kidney failure and/or dialysis eventually?

    I should probably add that I do a very poor job of hydrating myself. I go all day without drinking any water or liquids, except coffee and a few sips of coke with a meal. Not sure if this could cause a kidney problem, but I’m trying to drink 8 glasses/day now. I’d really appreciate any info. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Ok, calm down. Your diabetic friends is probably very knowledgeable about diabetes and his own kidneys, but he is not a doctor or familiar with your body. First, your second test showed improvement. That’s good news. Also, the doctor didn’t rush you to the emergency room for kidney failure, did he? You said you worry you aren’t urinating right, but you also said you are trying to drink more. This means you have changed your fluid intake so your “output” so to speak will also change. I’m sure you know how harmful stress is to the human body. If you are freaking out about this, you are only hurting yourself… and you don’t even know if anything is really wrong. Wait until you see the specialist. Try to relax and not stress so much that your body starts freaking out too. Things are rarely as bad as we think they are. And if something is really wrong, then good for you for catching it now. Also, what kind of “friend” tells you that you have kidney failure before you even see the specialist??? Try to surround yourself with more hopeful people.

    I need help understanding/interpreting feline blood test results. No guessing please.?
    I took my 13 yr old cat to the vet last week because she is having labored breathing. She seems fine, not distressed, eating fine but her breathing sounds bad and her sides retract each time she breathes. She was breathing very quick shallow breaths. The vet said it was asthma but wanted to do xrays and blood tests to be sure. Her blood test results were as follows:

    Test Result Reference Range Indicator
    ALB = 3.1 g/dL 2.3-3.9 Normal
    ALKP = 36 U/L 14-111 Normal
    ALT < 10U/L 12-130 No graph shown
    AMYL = 573 U/L 500-1500 Normal (at the low end of normal)
    BUN = 16 mg/dL 16-36 Low (on the line for low/normal, vet says Low)
    Ca = 9.1 mg/dL 7.8-11.3 Normal
    CHOL = 126 mg/dL 65-225 Normal
    CREA = 2.3 mg/dL 0.8-2.4 High? (inside the "normal" box but towards high end,
    vet says "High")
    GLOB = 3.7 g/dL 2.8-5.1 Normal
    GLU = 155 mg/dL 71-159 High (line between normal/high, vet says not a
    concern, it's just high because she's scared
    or nervous)
    PHOS = 5.1 mg/dL 3.1-7.5 Normal
    TBIL < 0.1 mg/dL 0.0-0.9 No graph shown
    TP = 6.8 g/dL 5.7-8.9 Normal

    HCT = 37.9% 24.0-45.0 Normal
    HGB = 11.5 g/dL 8.0-15.0 Normal
    MCHC = 30.3 g/dL 30.0-36.9 Low (line between low/normal)
    WBC = 25.2 x10^9/L 5.0-18.9 High
    GRANS = 22.0 x10^9/L 2.5-12.5 High
    %GRANS =87%
    L/M =3.2 x10^9/L 1.5-7.8 Normal
    %L/M = 13%
    PLT = 46 x10^9/L 175-500 Low
    Retics ~ 0.6%

    Her vet said she has CRF/kidney disease and told me to start her on Hill's Prescription Diet or if she wouldn't eat that (said a lot of cats won't) a recipe she gave me that consisted of liver, calcium carbonate, eggs and vegetable oil immediately. She said based on her creatinine levels my cat was in the 3rd of 4 stages and her kidneys would fail quickly if I continued with her current diet. She made it clear that I needed to start feeding her the new diet immediately. My cat won't eat it, any of it. She's always been a very picky eater. I went back and asked for a can of the prescription food, the vet tech sold me a can of a/d critical care formula, she ate this. I went back to get more and the vet said it was not good for her kidneys :^/ That she has to eat the k/d formula. I bought this and she won't touch it. I even tried adding tuna juice and she won't touch it.

    While researching what else she can eat, I noticed that her blood test results don't seem to be consistent with CRF test results. ie: her BUN is low/normal not high, HCT is normal, PHOS is normal

    I am wondering if anyone that knows veterinary medicine can answer this for me. I'm extremely concerned because she was eating fine before the diet change even with the labored breathing, now she won't eat any of the k/d foods and not more than a bite or two of anything else. The vet says if she won't eat the kidney diet to add water and force feed it to her from a squeeze bottle. This seems counterproductive (and painful for me, she doesn't like being force-anything) if she isn't in kidney failure. If she is, then I would really appreciate suggestions on alternatives to the aforementioned k/d food (tried can and dry) and the k/d liver recipe that she won't eat.

    She has had antibiotic and steroid shots for the lung infection. Plus the vet prescribed liquid antibiotics and probiotic paste to take home. My cat would let me give her the antibiotics to begin with because she didn't have much "fight" in her. Now she has it back and is fighting me when I give her the antibiotic. She won't touch the probiotic or any food that I put it in, even tuna (the bribe food/her fave). I've also been putting her in a crate and giving her albuterol nebulizer treatments followed by percussions. Her breathing is better than it was. But her respirations while laying down/resting are 55-60 breaths per minute.
    Vet did xrays because she felt "lumps" in her hind legs. Turned out to be nothing. The xrays did show "something" in her lungs (two hazy spots, one at the top edge of right lung and one on the towards the edge of the left lung) but the doctor said with her age she doesn't recommend surgery to find out if it is something "bad" or not. Just do antibiotics/nebs/percussions
    JC: Thank you so much for your reply. I appreciate you taking the time to read my entire question and to give an informed answer. She is family. I've had her since she was a tiny kitten and she means the world to me. My gut told me that something wasn't right with her diagnosis. Especially when she was looking at the xrays. She went up to the light board and stared at it, then moved really close and stared again for a bit and then said "there's something here..and here" pointing at the very light hazy spots but didn't tell me what that meant until I asked for more information. So, no, she did not send them to a radiologist. I had taken her in because of the breathing and she also had a hard spot under one of her nipples. We got a dog last year, so for the past year she doesn't live in my lap like she always has. Needless to say, when I was holding her, I felt the "tough" spot on her tummy/under the nipple. The vet seemed somewhat unconcerned about the spot but said from feeling it that
    unconcerned about the spot but said from feeling it that it was a "mammary tumor" which seems like something to be concerned about. She said if it gets any bigger to bring her back, but that was that. Velvet has always been a very healthy fiesty girl (she's a Russian Blue) but in the last couple of years she developed a small lump over her front right shoulder, it looks/feels like fluid filled skin, I was told by everyone this is nothing to be concerned about especially since it doesn't hurt her in the least to touch it, press it, etc. The vet said it wasn't anything to worry about either, just due to her getting older. She did say that because of the lumps in her legs and the hard spot in her tummy we should do xrays to make sure it wasn't a tumor in her lungs causing the breathing problems. I asked about the legs, because she didn't even mention them when reviewing the xray. She said "it's nothing, if it was, I would have told you".

    I was terrified when I went in. She seems to have

    • ANSWER:
      Time to find a new vet.

      Those aren’t the kidney numbers of a CRF cat. A better predictor of kidney health is to test the specific gravity of the urine – if it’s concentrated, the kidneys are functioning properly, if it’s too dilute, they are starting to age. The reduced kidney function is one of aging, and not a disease. A cat’s body craves and needs protein – that is why she is instinctively rejecting the K/D. Very few vets will prescribe a low-protein diet for cats with aging kidneys – they 1) won’t eat it 2) it leads to muscle wasting (the body needs to get protein from somewhere!) and 3) it hasn’t been proven that low-protein slows down the progression of the CRF. What she needs is to eat – a high quality canned food free of by-products and chemical preservatives. That’s what my vet recommends, based on the latest research. The by-products are hard to digest, and the chemicals are tough on the kidneys. Good canned foods will keep her better hydrated, and slow down the aging of the kidneys.

      Did the vet send the xrays out for a ‘real’ radiologist to interpret? Cats with asthma – untreated – can get hard spots in their lungs, and those will show up on xrays. It takes a real radiologist to interpret an xray – the answer is NOT surgery to find out what it is, it’s to have a qualified person read and interpret the xray. Personal story – my rescue rex was coughing prior to his coming to me, and was taken to the vet who did a chest xray, and diagnosed severe hear disease and wanted to do ultrasounds, etc. I insisted that the xrays were to be sent to a radiologist – diagnosis was asthma. Quite a bit different than the vet’s diagnosis of an aorta ready to self destruct.

      CRF is not a death sentence. And yours isn’t there yet. Feeding her a food she can’t stand is counterproductive, and can lead to liver failure when she refuses to eat. Find another vet, and feed her a quality canned food so that the poor thing eats! At 13 – with that pretty good bloodwork – she should have some good quality years left to spend with you.

    I’m 25/ type1 diabetic(for 17yrs)/f/ 2 yrs ago BUN/CREAT ratio was 19.7, what does it mean? No new blood work ?
    I am tired all the time, despite being on 300 mg Wellbutrin XL, 40 mg Adderall XR. I have not had any labs work done in two years (I know that is not good, so i just switched to a new doctor) No one ever told me that my blood work showed any abnormalities, I just found this info out by reviewing my medical records. I am very worried about my kidney function. My A1C has been between 8 and 9 for about 10 years, and i have no know complications from this yet. Also, my Creat levels were normal (0.7) and my BUN levels were normal (13.8) on this blood test. I had the lab done at a teaching hospital, could they have made an error in computing my bun/creat ratio?

    • ANSWER:

      I wouldn’t be overly concerned with the ratio. Your BUN/Creat are within normal limits and so is the ratio (13.8 / 0.7 = 19.7). Since you are diabetic and your A1Cs have been so high I would definitely recommend getting labs done, which can effect you kidneys.

      Hope this is a simple explanation and hope it helps. But definitely have your new MD do labs.

      Clinical Lab Scientist

    What dietary options do I have for my dog with kidney disease?
    My 11 year old neutered male sheltie is beginning to show signs of kidney disease. His BUN levels were last recorded at 29 and 34 for his last two blood tests, which my vet says is an indication of a very slow progression into stage 1 kidney disease. My vet wants me to put him on Science Diet k/d, but I don’t believe in low quality bulk processed food like that. I don’t feed my dog corn, by-products, and prefer not to feed him any grains as well as any other fillers or plant proteins.
    I’ve read that plant proteins are harder on the kidneys than animal proteins and animal proteins are okay is early stages of kidney disease but my vet is adamant about a low protein, low salt, low phosphorus prescription diet. While I agree with the low salt and phosphorus, I’m not sold on the low protein and the prescription garbage.
    My dog currently eats EVO Red Meat Small Bites, Blue Buffalo Wilderness Duck and Solid Gold Barking at the Moon rotations. I’m pretty sure I have to lower his protein, which I’m okay with.
    However, I was wondering what kind of food (wet and dry food) is recommended for kidney problems for people who are seeking a more holistic diet for their pets? Any information is helpful. I can’t find a pet nutritionist in my area, so this is so difficult.

    PS I’ve been looking at Wellness Super5Mix Senior as a candidate with canned Innova Senior… That’s the best combination I’ve found, but any and all genuine thoughts and experiences is welcome.
    I’ve been looking at a holistic vet, and yes the cause of my dog’s problems is probably his food, but from before I became better informed. I used to feed him until he was around 6 or 7 Kibbles n Bits and Moist and Meaty, and I believe the plant proteins and fillers have taken their toll on him.
    Please refrain from blaming me for the issue; I already have blamed myself.
    PS Can you explain why you feel Science Diet is a better food than what I have been feeding him and why my food choices are junk? I’m open to opinions, as long as they have been researched outside of the brand’s lab.
    Thanks for the info! The link didn’t work for me but I’m checking out the website. I threw this question up here to get some ideas… This won’t be the definitive answer here… I’m going to check out that group. I’ve already joined.
    What did you feed your dog? I’m taking a pass on the Science Diet, I’d just love to hear exactly why Science Diet is superior to holistic diets according to Bonnie…
    walking lady- I’m going to check your link out as well. That’s an interesing idea with the high protein.
    CJ Rossi, I just don’t believe that the SD is even a medium quality food. I don’t believe there’s enough protein to effectively keep a dog in his peak health. Further, I don’t know if the protein is plant or animal based, and the research I have done says that plant based protein actually makes the kidneys work harder. It will be a harder sale for me to switch to Science Diet. If I could find a medium quality, I would consider it, but I’m just not seeing it right now.
    I don’t think Science Diet is formulating a proper diet for a dog with kidney problems in mind. I think that Science Diet created a food decades ago based on the information they had then, and have become such a presence in vet’s offices that they no longer feel the need to do research.
    I realize your cats have been living for three years on k/d but I’ve also talked to a gentleman who continues to feed his Blue Buffalo to his dog five years after being diagnosed with kidney problems with no health issues.
    I don’t find a specific instance of the longevity of an animal to be enough proof for me.
    I feel like feeding my dog chicken beaks and feathers and corn (aka SD k/d) with a low protein prolongs his life with kidney disease just to shorten it with a protein and nutrient deficiency.
    I don’t feed my dog high quality food simply because it is considered high quality. I feed it to him beacause I believe it is what is best for him. I don’t feel Science Diet ever will be.
    Thanks Cookie for the info on your diet. I have been trying to locate a nutritionist to formulate something for my dog as well. That’s the only reason why I am looking for a holistic vet… well, that and I’m interested in testing my dog before over vaccinating, but that’s a whole nother discussion. :o ) Anyway, I love my traditional vet, but I was told that to find a nutritionist, the easiest path to take is to seek a holistic vet first and they would know where to go from there… not so much I’m interested in the herbal aspect of it.

    • ANSWER:
      I am sorry about your dog’s illness. I am not a veterinarian, so can’t advise you on food choices, my suggestion would be to find a holistic vet. Vets that promote Science Diet are usually selling the food and making profit on their recommendations, which could be why your vet is so adamant on you feeding that food.

      If you find a Holistic Vet, there is no way he/she would recommend Science Diet (junk food). This vet could advise and supervise healthy food choices and how your dog progresses.

    Protein and blood in my urine, anybody else?
    I have had a 3+ protein in my urine along with a trace amount of blood for several months now. They ran a blood test on me and my (BUN)Blood Uri nitrogen level is elevated and so is my creatinine level. At first they wanted me to go see a urologist to get a cystoscopy to look inside my bladder but not since the recent blood test of my BUN they want to send me to a doctor that only specializes in the kidneys. I was wondering if anyone out here has had the same experience as what is going on with me and if so what have they done for you and was it scary or painful? Please only serious answers back, I need real answers! Please help ease my mind, if you can.

    • ANSWER:
      How old are you? Have you had any infections within the past year that went untreated? Do you have any symptoms such as pain upon urination? Can you tell us a bit more?

    can you have withdrawals from Tylenol PM such as fatigue?
    I was taking Tylenol PM for about a year, I never experienced any serious side affects from it and never noticed any physical changes either. However, once I graduated high school i quit taking it because i no longer needed to fall asleep at a certain time every night, or wake up at a reasonable time for school. I noticed that maybe a week after no longer taking it, I was very fatigued. That was around the end of June. i STILL feel the fatigue feeling. I just feel not all there, kind of like not having enough sleep when in fact i sleep more than the recommended 8 hours. Ive described it as feeling “foggy” kind of in a daze, i went to the neurologist and he gave me Lunesta, didn’t work. I’ve had blood tests, no anemia, no mono, everything was normal. The only thing that was a bit high was my Kidney BUN count. But the doctor didn’t seem to think that was the problem. I’m not sure whats going on but its extremely ANNOYING. i absolutely hate this feeling. If anyone can help that would be great.

    Also, when i ran out of Tylenol PM I was forced to take Motrin PM. I read the label and it said do not take for more than 10 days. Totally took it longer than that, maybe a few weeks. could that contribute to the fatigue as well?

    • ANSWER:
      I don’t really know, but personally I dont think the effects would last QUITE that long. I use tylenol pm quite a bit myself and I feel fatigue after I stop taking it for only a day or two.

    Are you knowledgeable in Anatomy, Medicine, or Diseases? If so PLEASE help with CASE STUDY.?

    Doctor, Your patient is Alex J, a 45-year-old male from the Midwest. It is February. He has the following symptoms: weakness, fatigue, hypotension, weight loss, dehydration, and decreased cold tolerance. He has also noticed an increased pigmentation (tanning) of both exposed and nonexposed portions of the body and back. The doctor performed a plasma cortisol determination test.
    His blood chemistry values follow:
    Serum sodium 128 mEq/Lv
    Serum potassium 6.3 mEq/L
    Fasting blood glucose 65 mg/dL
    BUN 4.5 mg/dL
    Serum creatinine 0.5 mg/dL

    Hematology tests resulted in the following values:
    Hematocrit 50%
    Leukocytes 5000/cu mm
    A plasma cortisol determination indicated a low cortisol level. Following administration of ACTH, plasma cortisol did not rise significantly after sixty and ninety minutes. Endogenous circulating levels of ACTH were later determined to be significantly elevated.

    1. What endocrine organ is the site of the malfunction?
    2. What is the name of this disorder? Use all available information to support your diagnosis.
    3. Discuss the electrolyte disturbances resulting from this disorder. elaborate
    4. Discuss the metabolic disturbances resulting from this disorder. elaborate
    5. What is the cause of the tanning?


    1) Adrenal Gland
    2) Addison’s Disease
    3) The sodium is low, and the potassium is high because of the lack of aldosterone to control the levels in the kidneys. The low BUN makes no sense for Addison’s though…Not sure if that is a typo. BUN should be high, not low if it is Addison’s
    4) Oh there is a lot here. Since the hypothalamus is not being turned off by cortisol, it makes an abundance of CRH which lowers blood sugar, and induces stress. There is also low blood pressure because of the lack of angiotensin. So basically the glucocorticoids responsible for deactivating the hypothalamus and pituitary are not present, so both organs produce hormones without negative feedback.
    5) Decreased glucocorticoid levels will cause the pituitary to release a lot of ACTH. ACTH is turned into MSH which signals the melanocytes to produce melanin, and therefore pigment.
    The patient has Addison’s Disease. It is often caused by autoimmune destruction of the adrenal gland.


    • ANSWER:
      1 and 2 are right
      for 3, the only thing id add is that aldosterone does impact your kidneys filtering ability and you can see a drop in bun with that
      4. your talking about two things

      a) low blood sugar-which comes from low cortisol production by adrenals leading to fatigue and depression
      b)low blood volume- which comes from low aldosterone, which you mentioned

      you didnt mention low sex drive(men and women), and problems with mentruation(women) and pregancy(women;
      the adrenal gland has 3 layers(GFR)
      zona glomerulosa – outermost zone-makes aldosterone
      zona fasiculata -, middle zone,makes cortisol
      zona reticularis – thin, inner zone makes sex hormone

      the mnemonic i like to remember this is: the deeper you go the sweeter it gets, think about sex

      fyi,name a famous person with addisons? jfk

    What causes low sodium levels? …I have only one kidney…..?
    I have high blood pressure but is controlled with Norvasc…
    I totally avoid salt….maybe not a good idea?

    on 6-30-09 I took blood work and my sodium level was low…132.
    normal is between 135-149

    It has been like this for about a year or so.

    But when I took the blood test also my BUN showed 26 high and the normal range is between 8-23…
    My Creatinine was .7 normal is 0.4–1.6
    BUN /Creatinint Ratio was 37.1 and the normal range is 5.0–22.0

    on July 10, 2009 I went to urgent care another doctor gave me Cipro for urinary infection because I had burning when I urinated and my lower back and side ached.
    My urine sample was negative of any infection but I told the doctor I took one Cipro several hours before I saw him of which I happened to have and do you think this could have altered the urine sample?

    On 7-30-09 I took another blood test and my BUN showed it lowered to 21 and with this lab the normal range is 5–26

    My Creatinine, Serum is .61 and normal is 0.57–1.00

    My BUN /Creatinine Ratio went down to 34 but is still high which I was told by the Doctor this fluctuates and this does not mean nothing.

    My Cholride Serum is 95 normal is 97–108

    I have only one kidney….

    Yesterday, this doctor recommended two Kidney specialists of which I need to pick one!

    Can someone please help me with your knowledge or experience and information…

    I would appreciate this very much!
    Thank You!
    God Bless!


    • ANSWER:
      The news is good, your sole kidney is in pretty good shape based on your tests.

      Na 132 is perfectly fine if stable.
      Cr good.
      A creatinine clearance would be nice to know, but likely to be A-ok also.

      In answer to your other question, yes taking a antibiotic a few hours before a urine test might alter the results (if you had an infection, the sample should still have leucocytes but might not grow germs).

    acute renal failure in kitten… could the vet be wrong?
    10 days ago I brought my kitten to the vet after 36 hours of not eating and extreme lethargy. He was very dehydrated and his blood work was all over the charts but even in the mess of blood values the vet was still able to discern kidney insufficiency after 12 hours of hospitalization everything but the kidney values (Creatinine BUN and also his WBC) were normalized after 36 hours he ripped out his IV and was much stronger but with the next days blood test there was no improvement in the BUN or WBC creatinine was slightly off after another 36 hours not much change She did not tell me what the numbers were but told me that she still didn’t know if he had ingested something or if he was born with bad kidneys. His kidneys looked normal on an X-ray not small like in CRF cats and his symptoms came on so suddenly I refuse to believe he was born with bad kidneys as for ingestion I keep no plants in the house and all toxic products (soaps and cleaning products) are kept almost out of reach for even me let alone the cat. Long story short (too late) I was told I could put him down or if I was up to it take him home and make him comfortable with sub-q treatments and a wet food diet (low protein if he would take it). Her prognosis was I would see him steadily decline in the next couple weeks. I took him home Saturday morning I have given him his fluids every day fed him by hand and stimulated his appetite I have also given him dilute apple cider vinegar to help flush his system and the antibiotics provided by the vet. It has been 5 1/2 days and he is not declining he is getting stronger every day he has stopped drinking so much and urinates 2-3 times per day his bowel movements seem normal a little soft from all wet food but in keeping with what he eats. His twitching has almost completely stopped (was a full body tremor when he came home) He sleeps about 18 hours a day I think that is normal my healthy cat does the same… is it possible that he is recovering? At least to a manageable CRF level? is it possible he had an infection clouded by the other blood values? Could this death sentence she gave my cat be preemptive? I am not looking for false hope I just think it is strange that nearly halfway through his proposed life expectancy he is stronger than he was on his IV fluids in the hospital… has anyone had a cat that recovered from Acute renal failure? How long was the process of recovery after hospitalization… This vet was good and cared but I think she was more worried that I would run out of money than anything else I just want to know if anyone else has seen these cats turn around at a little slower pace
    oh and I check him for dehydration multiple times per day and he is always hydrated sometimes first thing in the morning he skin takes an extra second to spring back but nothing that my other cat doesn’t show from time to time. Also when he came home his urine didn’t have an odor now it has a light ammonia smell to it… could that mean he is clearing toxins again? I know the natural response is ask the vet but I think at this point she is more operating on a cover her ass mode than anything. (can’t say i blame her since everyone sues everybody else if things don’t go their way)

    • ANSWER:
      Some cats do recover from this, especially if caught early. A couple things about this vet made me wonder, though. For one thing, did she explain the list of toxins that might have caused this? For example, in a little kitten even one tylenol or NSAID like ibuprofen could have caused this. I have a friend whose cat died from tylenol consumption. So if one fell out of your purse and you never noticed it, it could be that simple.

      Since you obviously care about the kitten, my suggestion at this point might be to get a second opinion. The sad truth is, some vets are just not good with cats, and I’ve had 2 of these vets in 2 separate states. I would not be impressed if the cat was responding in exactly the opposite way the vet predicted, and rising kidney enzymes aren’t even always acute renal failure. If this was me (and I’ve done this anytime a diagnosis is tricky) I’d ask for a copy of his records and get a separate opinion. Try to find a cat specialist if you can. They’re not more expensive, and you might hear something very different. Cat rescue groups can help find one.

      Obviously, if you do this, I’d suggest doing it quickly, partly because of the nature of the diagnosis and also with a weekend coming up.

      I realize you’re not looking for false hope and I know how gut wrenching this is! But I wish someone had given me this advice when my cat had some strange symptoms, because I know I ended up in the hands of someone who was out of her league in treating it. Good luck to you and kitty.

    does my dog have kidney disease?
    I have a 5 year old toy yorkie. she weighs 4lbs. she started drinking lots of water and started to wet the bed. took her to our vet, he did urine and blood test. nothing showed up. urine was very diluted. we cut her down to 5 oz of water a day for two weeks. that stopped the bed wetting, but she is still very thirsty. we did another urine test. still diluted. now another blood test to check bun levels. she is so thirsty she wines every other hour for water. PLEASE HELP.
    2nd blood test done and “bun” levels are great. so no kidney disease. vet is looking into other things, like some sort of diabetes or a condition that the dog is bored and just drinks to drink. like a child with a pacifier. so far 4 test and nothing accomplished. I feed her a high protein dog food. no grain in it at all. the feed store says it is the best.

    • ANSWER:
      I would NOT restrict water! If she has diabetes insipidus (which is one possibility), restricting water can actually be life threatening. If she has kidney disease, her water should not be restricted, either.

      I really think you need a new, better vet. BUN should have been done on the bloodwork she already had, What was actually checked on the bloodwork? Do you have the results?

      New vet… really! Restricting water is lousy and dangerous advice! Give her back her water bowl…

    Chronice Kidney Disease?
    My mum’s 43 year old and has chronic kidney disease for the past 14 years. She is healthy and normal. The doctor says she suffers from a kidney infection and hence her kidney has been damaged. Her damage is progressive. For the past 5 years, her BUN level has been around 90 and creatinine around 2.3 to 2.4. Her recent blood test showed that her BUN was still 90 and creatinine increased to 2.8. Her haemoglobin has also decreased to 9.1 from 9.8. The doctor says she is OK as her WBC was low and hence her kidney infection was under control. However, I am scared as I read in the internet that increasing creatinine level shows increasing kidney damage. I am really scared and want to know whether my Mum is OK? I trust the doctor as he has successfully kept my mum’s kidney disease under control for 14 years. She has decided to take another blood test 2 days later. But, at what creatinine level is dialysis required? Is my Mum really OK?

    • ANSWER:
      Normal Values :BUN
      7 – 20 mg/dl. Note that normal values may vary among different laboratories.
      Normal Values: Serum creatinine:
      A normal (usual) value is 0.8 to 1.4 mg/dl. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories.
      Females have a lower creatinine than males, because they have less muscle mass.
      Note: mg/dl = milligrams per deciliter
      Normal values: Haemoglobin:
      Male- 13.5 to 17.7 g/dL
      Female-11.5 to 16.5 g/dL.
      Consult the Nephrologist.
      Please see the web pages for more details on BUN, Serum creatinine, Hemoglobin and Renal failure-chronic.

    Puppy with possible kidney disease…Should I keep him?
    Me and my husband got a mini schnauzer 4 month old pup from a rescue group about a month ago. This has come to be the worst nightmare of our lives so far…Since the day we brought him home we noticed that he drinks a lot of water…we were told by the vet that it was probably stress from the house change…we waited and he still drank lots of water (he’s about 11 pounds and drinks about 1L of water everyday)…the vet did some blood tests and urinalysis and found his BUN, Phosphorous and Calcium levels a little elevated and his urine very dilute…nothing big, but still not normal…he said it was a probable UTI infection and put him on antibiotics…10 days later we took him back, the values were a little higher now…he advised of probable kidney disease, possibly congenital…the vet put him on k/d food and gave him more antibiotics. I decided to go to another vet for a second opinion and again the new vet advised that since his Creatinine values were within normal range, it could just be a bad infection and gave him stronger antibiotics for 14 more days. Yesterday I took him back for his recheck and now his values are all within normal although his urine is still very dilute (1.008 and this was his first urine of the day). The vet is not sure if his values are lower because the antibiotics are working or if it’s just because of the food he’s been eating have lowered the values (low protein, low calcium, phosphorus, etc) so she wanted to do an ultrasound to confirm if it’s indeed kidney disease…the ultrasound is about 0 but my husband and I cannot afford this. The vet suggested I just keep the dog b/c she does think it might be some kidney problem and leave him on the diet and just let him live whatever time he’s supossed to live…basically just keep him on diet and dont worry about testing and stuff….our dilemma is, should we return the puppy to the rescue group and let them deal with him? (they said they would put him up for readoption but I dont really believe them and i dont think anyone would adopt a sick puppy) or should we just keep him and let him be happy and give him love until God decides to take him away? By the way, the puppy is the happiest creature ever…he’s not in pain, with appetite, not lethargic or anything…in fact, he’s VERY active…My heart is broken because I love him with all my heart and I dont want him to be put to sleep or to be given to somebody that wont take care of him the way we do…so I need advise…should I keep him????????? HELP!!!

    • ANSWER:
      As heartbreaking as it would be, I would keep the puppy until the day I had to make the tough decision to end his suffering. I would want to make sure this puppy was given the best chance at life.

    How long can a cat live with advanced kidney disease (kidney failure)?
    My vet just said that my cat had advanced kidney disease/failure. Before diagnosis he suspected it and got kitty on fluids so he perked up a little. His test results came back and is BUN was over 300 and i think the normal is below 30. All of his other numbers were way off too. Kitty started eating and drinking on his own again but just a little. He comes out of the closet for that then goes back. I asked the vet what the prognosis was and all he said was “his kidneys are bad.” I don’t know what that tells me about how long kitty has.

    • ANSWER:
      Kidney failure is the main cause of death for older cats. We have lost 6 cats to it.

      Kidney failure is not curable, as the first person who answered this quesitgon said.

      The BUN and other items in the blood which indicate kidney failure only start showing at abnormal levels when around 75% of the kidney function has been lost – that means that the cat (and humans) can get by on only about 25% of their kidney function and, usually, by the time the failure is detected, 75% of the kidney function has been lost.

      A cat with kidney failure, called Chronic Renal Failure – CRF – can be helped with some medications and by monitoring and responding to increases and decreases in different substances such as potassium and calcium.

      At home, the most beneficial thing you can do is give the cat fluids subcutaneously. You take an IV bag of a fluid such as Lactated Ringers Solution, attach an IV tubing set to the bag and a needle at the other end of the tubing and insert the needle under the cat’s skin and give them a dose of fluids – the normal does is around 100ml

      This can help tremendously, as you saw when the vet gave him fluids.

      However, you have to face the fact that your cat has what is a terminal disease.

      I hope this isn’t to blunt – your cat will die of kidney failure and hopefully you and the vet can work to make the remaining time comfortable for him,

      How long he has left depends upon a lot of things, it could be weeks, months, or years – but very likely not over a year or so.

      The vet answered your question about prognosis as he did because it is very difficult to give a prognosis with CRF and also, as I said above, kidney failure, or euthanasia because of it, is the main cause of death for older cats.

      If your vet will not teach you how to give fluids, I recommend talking with another vet.

      Fluids can help tremendously in improving the cat’s day to day life.

      Right now, you need to go to this Google search result page and start reading the pages and going to the support forums and learn from those who have been “there” –


      If I can be of any help, we have had cats with CRF and I’ve given several cats subcutaneous fluids for this and other problems, do not hesitate to email me.

      Go to that Google result page and read the material it found.

      My wife always says that you know when a cat’s time has come, that they give you a sign, one way or another when it is time to let them go.

      Even so, it will be one of them most difficult decisions you will every have to make – we have had to euthanize 11 cats over the past 22 years and it never gets any easier.

      Kidney failure is not curable, even in humans, without a transplant. The only “treatment” is dialysis.

      Kidney transplants are available for cats but they are costly, ,000 and up, and most CRF cats are not healthy enough to survive the surgery. You are also required to adopt the donor cat – which you naturally would do – at least we would.

      Dialysis by machine is not available for cats.

      I have tried to find vets who will do Peritoneal Dialysis http://www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/peritoneal/ but have never found one.

      It sounds like you have a very sick cat and that you need to begin, right now, to prepare yourself for his inevitable death.

      You might want to get all of his records and get a second opinion from another vet.

      You are facing a critical problem and it could not hurt to hear the view of another vet on the problem.

      My wife and I wish you good luck and that perhaps tomorrow some earth shattering cure for kidney failure will be announced and all the CRF cats can be saved – but then, we live in the real world where things like that don’t seem to ever happen.

      Our luck and our sympathy to you and don’t hesitate to email me for any reason.

    Has anyone been able to improve your kidney function by discontinuing harmful NSAIDs?
    I’ve been taking Diclofenac (Voltaren) for 5 years straight without knowing how harmful this is to the kidneys, just like all other NSAIDs. These medications cause either Acute Renal Failure (which is reversible) and a Chronic Kidney Desease called Analgesic Nephropathy, of which some websites say that it’s irreversible and some other ones say that sometimes it CAN be reversed by discontinuing the medicine. Obviously, I don’t have the Acute kind or I would have had to go to the emergency room already. I’ve just got tested: my creatinine is 0.8, my BUN is 14 and my GFR is 85 (I’m a 38-year-old female). I’m extremely scared, because kidney damage is usually not only irreversible but also progressive -it gets worse and worse until the person loses all of its function. So, given the discrepancy among websites regarding reversibility of the damage, I simply want to ask: Has anyone been able to improve their GFR?

    • ANSWER:
      Take a deep breath & relax.

      Your creatinine, BUN, & GFR are FINE. Well within normal limits. If you’re that worried, stop the Voltaren & talk to your doctor.

      Whenever you get an Rx, talk to the pharmacist about possible side effects.

    Canine Kidney Failure?
    I have a 12 year old Pomeranian that has had chronic knee problems for years. All of the Vets we visited discouraged knee surgery due to limited success rates. So back in ’07 they thought that she had developed arthritis in her knees, so I started giving her half of a baby aspirin with good results. After about a year, she did not respond to the aspirin as well as before so we took her to the Vet and started her on Metacam. Halfway through ’09 Tribble started slowing down, her tail would always be down, and was only eating half of her food. My wife and I thought this was due to knee pain, so December of ’09 we decided to have the knee surgery done. We brought her home from the Vet and she ate as normal, however the next day she did not finish her food and would only eat cat food. From there on she would only eat limited amounts of various things, such as egg and steak, but would not touch her food. We thought she was depressed so we waited for the cast to come off and see. Well, a month and a total of two surgeries later the cast comes off and the knee looks great, however Tribble still will not eat. We had the cast removed on a Wednesday and on Thursday we took her back to the Vet for the surgeon to double check her knee, which was perfect. We explained to the DR that she is still not eating, so the DR recommended a blood test. Friday I get a call from the DR that Tribble is in sever kidney failure, her BUN is 157 and her CRE is 8.*. The DR recommended IV therapy, which we did all Friday night and got good results with the BUN dropping to 86 and the CRE to 3.3. To try and continue the good results we put her in the emergency vet hospital over the weekend for IV therapy. I dropped her off at our regular Vet that Monday morning to continue IV therapy and get blood work. Well the blood work came back worse, BUN 108 and the CRE 6.6, what the hell? So all week I have been dropping her off at the Vet to get IV therapy during the day and the numbers have dropped a bit to BUN 104, CRE 6.1. However her veins are giving out and they cannot keep the catheter in for more than a day at a time and are now on leg number 4. Does anyone have any experience that can offer a suggestion? I want my dog’s last days to be peaceful, but don’t want to give up if there is any REAL possibility that she could have a recovery, even to the “manageable” level.

    • ANSWER:
      Kidney failure has the ability to be a potent adversary, and may not always respond favorably to treatment. In general, the body is able to compensate for a significant amount of kidney dysfunction — 75% of kidney function must be lost before changes are seen, and the damage may be reversible or irreversible. So, anytime a situation like this occurs, it is easily life-threatening.

      Here are a couple of things to consider in terms of pushing forward or not with your pet:
      1. It may be possible to pursue further treatment and diagnostics with a specialist. There are many universities and referral centers across the country with great, board-certified doctors in nearly any imaginable sub-field of veterinary medicine.

      2. Step back and look honestly at your pet’s situation and begin to consider her quality of life in your decision-making process. It can be difficult at times, but you have people around you — family, friends, veterinary professionals — who can all aid in your decision-making by giving opinions and support. The important thing is to not allow her to suffer without cause.

      –Note that the above answer is informational and opinionated only. It would not be possible to give sound medical advice pertinent to your pet without seeing her.

    What could cause low GFR (56) test. I DON’T have high blood pressure or diabetes.?
    Had blood work through project healthy living ( Detroit Area ). I also had high triglycerides 378, total cholesterol 218. But I’m petrified about this GFR test. I didn’t even know what this test was. Looked it up on internet. It’s about the kidneys. But it stated that the two main things that affect kidney problems are high blood pressure and diabetes. DON’T HAVE THEM. What else could cause this low reading. I do have horrible sinuses, for 9 long non-stop years. And have used generic afrin to breathe for 5 years. I know this is bad, but I cannot breathe. Sinus drainage is causing me to feel like I’ve been in constant torture. Have no health ins. and project heathy living is trying to get help for me, to see someone. But in the mean time I’m petrified. No high blood pressure, No diabetes. GFR 56?
    My BUN was 10, and Cretanine was 1.1 with in normal ranges.

    • ANSWER:
      Keep in mind that the GFR from a blood test is just an estimated value. It takes your creatinine, your age, your race, and your gender, and comes up with a number based on statistics. (See the first two sources below for more information about the calculations for GFR.) Kidney function can be determined much more accurately by doing urine tests, such as a 24-hour urine collection.

      There are many causes of decreased kidney function, other than diabetes and high blood pressure. See the third source below for some examples. Of course, you don’t know for sure that you have decreased kidney function.

      I hope they are able to find a doctor who can see you and follow up on this, but until then, try not to worry too much. I hope the doctor is also able to help with the sinus problems and the lipids. Good luck, and I hope everything goes well.

    Addisons Disease?? (Dog)?
    My dog has been to the vet extensively (including today) and I have researched her symptoms and have come up with the possibility that she has Addisons. Tomorrow I will have her tested but I was wondering if anyone can give additional information to me.

    She is a 2 yr old Papillion. She had puppies 4 wks ago. As of 6 days ago she stopped eating all together. Her glucose was low, 65, and we started antibiotics. She seemed to improve. This morning she couldnt walk, like she was too weak. She drinks some fluids but vet confirms dehydration. her Kidneys are not functioning right. BUN, PHOS, HCT, HGB, and PLT all high and glucose an alarming 23. (VERY LOW) Her temp 94.3

    Tomorrow she will be put on IV antibiotics, fluids and glucose for a hopeful improvement. I am also asking them to test for this specific disease. They told me she is near death and I am beside myself trying to find the cause so it can be treated along with the symptoms. Any advice, experience or suggestions appreciated
    Its not just kidney failure, there are 2 tests for kidneys, one came back normal, the other was high. Please dont answer unless you are familiar with Addisons disease. THANKS.
    Had dog tested for Addisons today but she has improved alot in the last 24 hours with meds and glucose supplements. Hopefully its not Addisons and she gets over it.

    • ANSWER:
      Did they check her Potassium and Sodium? K and Na. If they are low = dehydration. If they are high it could be kidney failure(it is also a sign of addison’s ) It could just be Kidney failure, but she is young for that. Is there any chance that she got into any poisons? rat poison or antifreeze?

      Those labs are indicating dehydration or kidney failure i do believe.

      One site says not to force water and that pedialyte is ok. I would check with the vet first.

      I hope she gets to be OK

    Anyone have any ideas or been through this with their dog?
    My dog was hospitalized for 4 days on IV fluids, she would not eat and would vomit if she did, when I would visit her she would eat but vomit after I left. Her BUN and creatine were elevated, and WBC, ALT and Potassium. I seen she was so nervous to be away I took her home on friday. She has not vomited once at home and is eating k/d,drinking water, normal urine and stool, she is playful been on walks everyday and running around with her toys and my other dogs. No signs of dehydration, but she is shaking. She is a three year old jack russell and has always shaked but not as much. Could it be a side affect from the antibotics she is taking? Kidney disease is possible but repeat testing next Saturday after one week of meds. Would she have done so well the past three days if she is in kidney failure? waiting on Addisons results also.. I dont know what to think. She was retested this Saturday and her creatinine dropped to 2 from 3.5 BUN little change. The Vet said as long as the Creatinine improved over the last 12hrs he was not as worried, Potassium was normal also but WBC still slightly elevated. Anyone been through this?? I am so upset, I love my baby and will pay or do anything if she has a chance. She was hospitalized for dehydration due possible obstruction from digging in gravel, she has no previous symptoms of kidney disease and blood work last year was normal.
    My dog did recieve a injection on thursday for Addisons? could this be why she is feeling better?

    • ANSWER:
      She is in a type of kidney failure which is why her levels are up. Did they ever suggest it was kidney stones (uric crystals?) That would cause pain which might explain the high levels and the shaking from pain. She also might have a kidney infection which shows from the elevated WBC. If crystals are blocking the ureter that can cause an infection.

    borderline high potassium levels?
    I went to the Dr last wk because I needed some treatment for heartburn. Because I’m a worrier, I asked the dr to just do some bloodwork to rule out anything more serious. So they called today and said all my labwork looked great, other than my potassium level at 5.3. They said it was no rush, just whenever I had the time this week to drop by the lab and they would repeat the test. Luckily they had checked my BUN and it was normal. (my Mom has kidney disease). So if my CBC, liver functions, kidney function bloodwork came back fine, do I need to be worried about my potassium level at 5.3? They should have my repeat test results back in about 2 days. But until then, can anyone tell me anything to reassure me I’m probably fine? I’m in a total panic over this.

    • ANSWER:
      If your kidneys are normal and you are not taking potassium supplements you are indeed fine. If they mentioned that the specimen was “hemolyzed” your minor elevation may be a laboratory abnormality rather than a real abnormality. Get the repeat and don’t worry.

    What do these lab results mean?
    I went into the dr. about three days ago because I have an IUD (for 2 years) and 2 pregnancy tests came up positive and I haven’t had my menstrual cycle in 2 months. The serum pregnancy test came up negative but, my lab reveals other issues possibly kidney or liver problems. My MPV level is 6.9 but, RDW is 11.9 (borderline) and my lymphocyte number is 1.4 (borderline). I have a high BUN/CREA ration of 22.9 but my individual BUN is 16 and my individual CREA level is 0.70 (both are normal). Then my total BILIRUBIN is 0.13 (low) and my GOT and GPT is high, GOT is 67 and GPT 102. My albumin is 4.2 (normal) globulin is 2.8 (normal) and my ALK PHOS is 108 (normal) My EST GFR is >60 which is also normal. I have felt tired, I have stomach cramps around my abdomen like a band is tightening and feelings of pregnancy like nausea and increase in vaginal secretions but still no menstrual cycle but, not pregnant. When I had my twins in 2006 I had preeclampsia but, said after the twins I should be fine. What could this possibly mean

    • ANSWER:
      maybe you need an ultrasound

    Senior cat with kidney failure?
    The vet says my cat has chronic kidney failure. She is about 12 to 13 years old, maybe 14. (She was abandoned 11 years ago when I took her in, I’m guessing she was 1 to 3 years old at the time.) The BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) number from her test was a very high 115 (normal is 15 to 34). Her creatinine was 6 (normal is .8 to 2.3). She has also lost a lot of weight. I’m awaiting results of a test for a suspected urinary tract infection. I’m treating her with IV fluids and appetite stimulants.

    My question is for anyone who has been through this. Has your cat recovered? My concern is for the quality of life for my cat. I don’t want her to suffer. I don’t want to put her through treatments which will just make her miserable while prolonging the inevitable. I realize I may come across as heartless. The vet doesn’t seem too optimistic. Has anyone had an older cat who recovered from kidney failure?

    Thank you to everyone for your advice and well wishes. I sincerely appreciate your support. She’s eating a little bit more but is becoming less active. I’m not ready to give up hope and will continue with her treatments.
    Bob, you are correct. The fluids, lactated ringers, are administered under the skin, not IV. Poor choice of terms on my part.

    • ANSWER:
      We have had 6 cats with CRF over the years, ranging in age from 14 to 18.

      I see that you are giving her fluids – good, that is one of the best things you can do at home for a CRF cat. However, I suspect you are giving the fluids subcutaneously, not intravenously (IV) – if you are inserting a needle under the skin and then putting fluids under her skin, your are giving them subcutaneously. If you are hooking up to an IV line left in a vein by the vet, then you are giving them intravenously (IV). Just wanted to make sure we are using correct terminology.

      The bad news is that CRF does not get better. It will only get worse and will likely be the cause of death for the cat – well, you will probably have her euthanized and that will be the actual cause of death but you will do it because her kidneys will eventually shut down completely.

      BUT – with proper treatment – by you and the vet – she have have more years of good quality life. We have had cats with CRF live an additional 4 to 5 years – pretty good years.

      However, CRF is a serious condition. Kidney failure is actually the leading cause of death (euthanasia, that is) for older cats. If anyone ever figures out a way to prevent, or provide better treatment for, CRF, they will become quite famous and very wealthy.

      I’ve given many a dose of fluids to CRF cats (and non CRF cats who were dehydrated) and while it is not something they look forward to, it really does not put them through very much. Once the needle is in place,, there is going to be very little discomfort as the dose is given – very little discomfort.

      I don’t know what appetite stimulants you are using but we have had good results with Cyproheptadine (believe it or not, I can spell that right off :-)

      As to deciding when the cat’s life is no longer worth living – I can’t make that decsion for you but hopefully your vet knows enough to help you with it.

      You said the vet was not optimistic, wait, to make any decsion, until she had been on fluids for a week or two and have another panel run to look at her BUN and creatinine. You also want to look at her hematocrit. That is the ratio of packed blood cells to serum in a centrifuged blood sample. It tells you if she is anemic, something that happens with CRF.

      If she were my cat and I was not completely confident in the vet, I would get a second opinion.

      A competent, profesional vet should not object to you asking for copies of her records, and all test results, so that you can get a second opinion. If your vet tries to discurage a second opinoin, I’d find a new vet.

      We, my wife and I, have had 26 cats over the 23 years we have been married and, as I said, have had cats with CRF which has lead to our deciding to euthanize them when the condition became severe.

      After going through a lot of vets, we have found one who I consider very competent in just about every area except diabetes – we have had four diabetic cats over the past 10 years. Simon was diagnosed about 13 years after he became my best buddy and we have adopted three other diabetic cats, knowing they were diabetic when we adopted them. We make all treatment decisions as regards treatment of the diabetes and we use the vet for other issues.

      I consider our vet to be probably one in several thousand vets as regards his knowledge, experience, skills, and approach to the treatment of cats – and if you knew me, you would know that I do not give out such praise lightly.

      Over the years the vet has learned more about diabetes – from me – but he still sometimes asks my advice on another diabetic cat who is his patient. My wife has said that I should charge him a consutling fee :-)

      When we were talking to the owners of the last diabetic cat we adopted, she wanted some references and I gave her the name and telephone number of our vet.

      She called me back a few days later and said the he had told her “I can’t think of anyone in the area who could treat a diabetic cat better than Bob.” :-)

      As I was saying, about your cat, don’t make a decision regarding euthanasia until you see how she responds to treatment. If you have any doubts, get a second opinion.

      Some tips as regards the fluids -

      Don’t buy supplies from the vet, the vet will likely charge you several times the prices you can find else where.

      We buy needles and IV tubing sets from Brico http://www.bricomedicalsupplies.com/CRFpage.html We have ordered from them for at least seven years and have never had any problems. You will need prescriptions of the needles and IV tubing sets.

      We buy the fluids – Lactated Ringers Solution – locally at a Sam’s Club pharmacy (owned by Walmart). If you have the NDC (National Drug Code) for the fluids, almost any pharmacy can order them for you. The NDC on the fluids I have is 0409-7953-09. The code includes a code for the manufacturer and with companies changing names and being bought out and such, the exact code my change. You can get the code off the bag of fluids you have.

      Price examples: the vet who first put one of our cat on fluids charged us .00 for a one litter bag of LRS, .00 for one IV tubing set, and .25 for tweleve needles.

      You can buy a box of one hundred needles from Brico for .90. I recommend the needles that they code as: TERN1825. They are Terumo 18g x 1″ needles. A gauge 18 will get the dose into the cat faster than a smaller gauge 19 or 20 needle.

      You can buy IV tubing sets from Brico for .25 each. I recommend their item MCGV1402 which is a BBraun IV Administration Set with no injection port – you don’t need an injection port.

      I have not bought any Lactated Rings Solution for a couple of years. The last price I paid was about .00 for a case of 12 one litter bags.

      Get separate prescriptions for needles, IV tubing sets, and fluids and shop around. You will need one IV tubing set per bag of fluids and one needle per dose. Since the most common dose is 100ml, you will get ten doses out of a one litter bag.

      As to administration – once you get the needle in place and fluid is moving well, grab the bag and squeeze – you may also need to twist up the empty portion of the bag – as hard as you can to get the fluids in more quickly. I can “push” 100ml into a cat in about 35 seconds, whereas it would take some minutes if I allowed gravity to drip it in.

      Warm the fluids before you give them.

      Leave the tubing set attached between doses and leave the needle in place – you will put on a new needle when you prepare for the next dose. Hang the bag somewhere out of the way between doses, use betadine (or equivalent) to clean the needle end of the tubing set before putting on a new needle.

      If you would like to, you can email me at crfinfo@sugarcatsimon.com and I will send you a very detailed description of the exact procedure I use to prepare everything and then give a dose of fluids to a cat.

      Good luck and give your cat a hug for me.


    I have an 8 year old female mongrel with kidney failure issues.?
    The initial blood report showed that she had a BUN level of 175 and a creanitine level of 5. After 8 days of fluid therapy the levels were brought down to BUN 66 and creanitine 2.5. All through this period she was eating a little food and then after the levels were brought down was looking for food and eating well and drinking water.
    She ate very well on a Sunday, 5 days after the IV fluids were stopped. Then she lost her appetite again. On Sunday she had some of our food with some spicy stuff in it – little bit of chillie.
    My vet suspects it to be gastric problems due to the spice, so, she was treated for gastric problems and when yoghurt was given she ate it and since then has started to drink milk and eat a little bit of chicken. She is very active.
    Anyway, another blood test was done and that shows that her bUN level had gone upto 81 and creanitine to 3.7. We are about to start the IV therapy again to lower the these levels.
    All in all, she is very active. Appreciate any comments

    • ANSWER:
      First, try asking again in the pet section, you may get some more animal specific answers there.
      I’m not an expert, but I thought that dogs with kidney failure needed a special diet which is low in salts and proteins. This can usually be bought through your vet. I’m surprised the vet didn’t mention it.
      Good luck, I hope your dog does well, its such a worry when they are poorly.

    What STDs did I miss?
    So, at my appt yesterday, my doc said he’d run the full panel of tests and just test for every type of STD.

    He did three swabs in his office while doing a physical exam of the area. He didn’t mention what these tests were and I wasn’t given any sort of paperwork (I thought I would be, so I didn’t ask him) that stated what he’d tested for.

    Here’s what I got tested for in my bloodwork:
    comp metabolic panel **

    ** comp metabolic panel includes Na, K, CI, CO2, Glu, BUN, Cr, Ca, TP, Ab, TBil, AP, AST and measures your sugar (glucose) level, electrolyte and fluid balance, kidney function, and liver function.

    It seems like they might have missed some. Does anyone know?

    • ANSWER:
      I would call them to see if they tested for all the STDS The important ones are the ones that never go away… HIV, Herpes, HPV, ect…..
      Just give them a call and see what they tested you for. But usuallly the best way is to get a blood test done

    human anatomy case study please help?
    Renal Case Histories – Case 9

    A 23-year-old felt puffy, weak, and tired for several months. She suddenly noticed her urine had a red to brown discoloration and the volume was minimal. She went to the emergency room of a nearby hospital and the following data were obtained upon examination and testing:

    Serum sodium 125 mEq/L
    Serum potassium 6 mEq/L
    Serum creatinine 2.6 mg/dL
    BUN 24.0 mg/dL
    pH (arterial) 7.32
    Hematocrit 25%

    Appearance Red to brown
    Specific gravity 1.025
    Blood Positive
    Glucose Negative
    Protein Mild

    Renal Function Tests:
    GFR (glomerular filtration rate) 40 mL/min
    RBF (renal blood flow) 280 mL/min

    What is the disorder of this individual?
    What situation(s) predispose an individual to this disorder?
    What is the cause of the hyponatremia and hyperkalemia?
    Why is there blood in the urine?
    How do the renal function tests for this individual compare to normal?
    What caused the puffy feeling?
    What type of treatment does this person need?
    Is this person a candidate for kidney dialysis? Explain your answer.


    • ANSWER:
      lol, I just did this case study for my A&P class last semester except mine said it was a “he.” I wrote that the patient had chronic kidney disease/renal failure.

    human anatomy case study due tommarrow pleassssse help!!!?
    Human anatomy case study please help?
    Renal Case Histories – Case 9

    A 23-year-old felt puffy, weak, and tired for several months. She suddenly noticed her urine had a red to brown discoloration and the volume was minimal. She went to the emergency room of a nearby hospital and the following data were obtained upon examination and testing:

    Serum sodium 125 mEq/L
    Serum potassium 6 mEq/L
    Serum creatinine 2.6 mg/dL
    BUN 24.0 mg/dL
    pH (arterial) 7.32
    Hematocrit 25%

    Appearance Red to brown
    Specific gravity 1.025
    Blood Positive
    Glucose Negative
    Protein Mild

    Renal Function Tests:
    GFR (glomerular filtration rate) 40 mL/min
    RBF (renal blood flow) 280 mL/min

    What is the disorder of this individual?
    What situation(s) predispose an individual to this disorder?
    What is the cause of the hyponatremia and hyperkalemia?
    Why is there blood in the urine?
    How do the renal function tests for this individual compare to normal?
    What caused the puffy feeling?
    What type of treatment does this person need?
    Is this person a candidate for kidney dialysis? Explain your answer.


    • ANSWER:

      RBF 5L/min
      hematocrit: 42-55%
      no blood
      4.5 mEq/L
      pH 7.35-7.45
      GFR/RBF = 20% normally=filtration fraction

      pH = 7.32 slightly acidic
      Serum Sodium = 125 mEq/L – low hyponatremia
      High potassium serum level: 6 mEq/L – hyperkalemia
      filtration fraction = 15%
      Proteinuria- (protein in the urine) indicates negative charges from the glomeruler barrier has been removed
      Hematocrit: 25 % very low- anemia

      What disease:

      all points to kidney failure

      Kindney makes eryhtropoeitin- low Hematocrit
      fatigue due to low oxygen circulation

      Kidney are unable to remove excess fluids – swelling in the legs, ankles feet, and legs

      Hyperkalemia- because the the kidneys are unable to secrete potassium

      Hyponatremia – because the kindeys are unabel to reabsorb sodium back into the blood

      Treatment :

      Kidney transplant

      Dialysis would be a good idea as malnutrition will eventually set in making the symptoms worse

      Blood in the urine because kidneys are unable to filter RBC’s properly, blood in the urine is normal in very minute- nodetectable by the eye, amounts. Brown color do to RBC’s indicates failure to filter – Kidney failure

      Messy I know, but I hope this helps- good luck!

    Renal Case Study – Can anyone help?
    A 22-year-old male felt puffy, weak, and tired for several months. He suddenly noticed his urine had a red to brown discoloration and the volume was minimal. He went to the emergency room of a nearby hospital and the following data were obtained upon examination and testing: Hematology: Serum sodium 125 mEq/L
    Serum potassium 6 mEq/L
    Serum creatinine 2.6 mg/dL
    BUN 24.0 mg/dL
    pH (arterial) 7.32
    Hematocrit 25%
    Urinalysis: Appearance Red to brown
    Specific gravity 1.025
    Blood Positive
    Glucose Negative
    Protein Mild
    Renal Function Tests: GFR (glomerular filtration rate) 40 mL/min
    RBF (renal blood flow) 280 mL/min

    1a. What is the disorder of this individual?
    1b. What situation(s) predispose an individual to this disorder?
    2. Define hyponatremia and hyperkalemia.
    3. What is the cause of the hyponatremia and hyperkalemia?
    4. Why is there blood in the urine?
    5. How do the renal function tests for this individual compare to normal?
    6. What caused the puffy feeling?
    7. What type of treatment does this person need?
    8. Is this person a candidate for kidney dialysis? Explain your answer.

    • ANSWER:
      HAHA, I am assuming your in Dr. Welsh’s class and getting a bit of help on case history #3?

    Turned down for life ins…can someone help me decipher the results?
    I am a 51 yr old female…take lysinopril for my blood pressure…went through blood and urine tests for the coverage…
    Here is why they said they denied coverage: height (5’5″), weight (240), protein in urine and blood sugar test results…I was given a Fasting Blood test…after 8 hrs of no food, only small amount of water…here is what the results are:
    (the ones with asterisks are the ones they have starred)

    Glucose (blood) 91
    Hemoglobin A1C 6.4 **
    Fructosamine 1.5
    Bun 13
    Creatinine (blood) 0.7
    Alkaline Phos 120
    Total Bilirubin 0.5
    AST (SGOT) 21
    ALT (SGPT) 21
    GGT/GGTP 30
    Total Protein (bld) 8.2
    Albumin (blood) 4.2
    Globulin (blood) 4
    Triglycerides 225 *
    NT-PROBNP 42
    Cholesterol 162 *
    HDL Cholesterol 36
    LDL Cholesterol 81 *
    Cholesterol/HDL 4.5
    LDL/HDL Ratio 2.25
    HIV (blood) Neg
    Hepatitis C Antibody Neg

    Urinalysis Results

    Urine Temp 98
    Specific Gravity 1.022
    PH (Urine) 5.9
    Glucose (Urine) 0
    Protein (Urine) 75 **
    Creatinine (Urine) 94.7
    Microalbuminuria 68.8 **
    Leukocyte Esterase Neg
    Hemoglobin (Urine) Neg
    WBC Count (Urine) 7
    RBC Count (Urine) 2
    G Cast 0
    H Cast 0
    Diuretic (Urine) Neg
    Nicotine – Urine (TXT) Neg
    Cocaine (Urine) Neg
    Malb/Creat (Urine) POS **

    My blood pressure was 118/70

    Any idea what I should be concerned about here? I have looked up protein in urine and I do not like what I am reading…kidney disease???? I don’t want to be worried about this, but is there someone out there that can shed some light on what this might show a doctor to look for?

    I had a complete physical a yr ago, and nothing showed up at all..excpet my blood pressure was high.

    • ANSWER:
      You might want to schedule and appointment with your regular physician. Some of those levels look like precursors to diabetes or possible kidney stones. Have your doctor look at the results.

    A doctor wants be to get blood work done…?
    A doctor, not my normal doctor, wants me to get some blood tests run, but would not tell me why. I think he wants a before/after ‘photo’ for some medication he might put me on. Anyway, I’m just wondering what these tests are, if a doctor or anyone knows. Here’s what’s written and what I’m supposed to give to the people at the hospital when I go:
    CBC x Diff
    Cmeatmice (??)
    DxCDoCe: V58.69

    Yeah, obviously this was hand written. He said it’s for thyroid, kidney, liver and something else, but I just want to know what I’m getting done before I’m actually at the hospital. Thanks!
    A doctor, not my normal doctor, wants me to get some blood tests run, but would not tell me why. I think he wants a before/after ‘photo’ for some medication he might put me on. Anyway, I’m just wondering what these tests are, if a doctor or anyone knows. Here’s what’s written and what I’m supposed to give to the people at the hospital when I go:
    CBC x Diff
    Cmeatmice (??)
    DxCDoCe: V58.69

    Yeah, obviously this was hand written. He said it’s for thyroid, kidney, liver and something else, but I just want to know what I’m getting done before I’m actually at the hospital. Thanks!

    Edit: I want to know if these are normal tests a Dr. might have run, or if these are anything in particular. Does t his all look and seem normal?

    • ANSWER:
      You answered your own question, your doctor said this is for your Thyroid, Kidney’s, and Liver.